File Extensions



*  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

000           Data file (GEOWorks) 
000-20009 Used to number old (backup) versions of files (for example, CONFIG.SYS
when changed by an installation program); also used to number related
data files for multiple users of a small-scale PC application
1ST Documenting wizard list (Microsoft Visual FoxPro)
001-999 Database index files used by (Superbase)
8 Source file (Assembly) (Similar to Microsoft Assembler)
113 Backup data file (Iomega Backup)
12M Smartmaster file (Lotus 1-2-3 '97)
123 Lotus 123 97 file
1-STEP Backup file (Iomega Backup)
2D Two-dimensional drawing file (VersaCAD)
2GR and 3GR VGA Graphics driver/configuration files (Microsoft Windows)
3D Three-dimensional drawing file (VersaCAD)
3DM 3D NURBS modeler, (Rhino)
3DS A file in 3D Studio (for DOS) format
386 A file for use in an 80386 or higher microprocessor
411 Data file (Used by digital cameras)
4GE Compiled code (Informix 4GL)
4GL Source code (Informix 4GL)
4V Music file (Quartet)
669 Music mod file (Composer 669)(Unis Composer)
669 Tracker module (Composer 669)
#01 and up A method of numbering picture files for a roll of film that has been
scanned for computer presentation
$$$ Used by OS/2 to keep track of archived files
~PR Project backup file (Terramodel)
~$~ Temporary file (1ST Reader)
~AP AppExpert project database file (Borland C++ 4.5)
~DE Project backup file (Borland C++ 4.5)
~MN Menu backup (Norton Commander)
@@@ Screen files used in the installation and instruction on use of such
applications as Microsoft Codeview for C.

To the top of the page

A     Object code library 
A Library file (Unix)
AA Audible audio file (commonly used for downloadable audio books)
AAM Authorware shocked file
AAS Authorware shocked packet
AB Applix Builder file
ABF Adobe Binary Screen Font
ABK Backup file (PrintMaster Gold)
ABK Corel Draw AutoBackup
ABM Audio album file (HitPlayer)
ABO Applix Builder Turbo file
ABS MPEG Audio Sound file
ABS Standard GNU compiler output file for a PC platform
ABS Sometimes used to denote an abstract (as in an abstract or summary
of a scientific paper) AutoBackup
ACA Project Manager Workbench file
ACA HTTP animation file (Microsoft Agent)
ACB ACBM Graphic image
ACC DR-DOS Viewmax file
ACD Character definiton file (Microsoft Agent)
ACE ACE Archiver Compression file
ACF HTTP character file (Microsoft Agent)
ACI ACI development appraisal (ACIWEB)
ACL Corel Draw 6 keyboard accelerator file
ACM Windows system directory file
ACM Interplay compressed sound file (Fallout 1,2, Baulder's Gate)
ACM Dynamic Link Library (DLL)
ACP Microsoft Office Assistant Preview file
ACR American College of Radiology file
ACS Character structered storage file (Microsoft Agent)
ACT Microsoft Office Assistant Actor file
ACT FoxPro Foxdoc Action Diagram
ACT Action Presentation
ACT Documenting wizard action diagram (Microsoft Visual FoxPro)
ACV Used to Compress and decompress audio data
AD After Dark screensaver
Ada Ada source text file (non-GNAT)
ADB Ada source text body file (GNAT)
ADB HP 100LX Organizer Appointment database
ADC Scanstudio 16 color Bitmap Graphic file
ADD OS/2 adapter driver file used in the boot process
ADF Amiga disk file
ADI AutoCAD device-independent binary plotter file
ADL QEMM Mca adaptor description library
ADM After Dark MultiModule screensaver (Microsoft)
ADM Windows NT policy template
ADN Lotus 1-2-3 Add-In file
ADP Dynamic Page file (AOLserver)
ADP FaxWorks Faxmodem setup file
ADP Astound Dynamite file
ADR Smart Address address book
ADS Ada source text specification file (GNAT)
ADT HP NewWave datafile for card applications
ADT AdTech Fax file
ADX Dynazip Active Delivery script
ADX Lotus Approach dBase Index
ADX Archetype Designer Document
ADZ Packed ADF file (Extracts with WinZip)
AE Author/Editor file (SoftQuad)
AEP ArcExplorer project file
AF2 ABC FlowCharter 2.0 Flowchart
AF3 ABC Flowchart
AFC Apple Sound file
AFI Truevision Bitmap graphic
AFM Adobe metrics
AFM HP NewWave Cardfile application
AG Applix graphic
AI Adobe Illustrator drawing
AI Corel Trace drawing
AIF Audio Interchange File, a sound format used by Silicon Graphics
and Macintosh applications
AIFC Similar to AIF (compressed)
AIFF Similar to AIF
AIM AOL Instant Messenger Launch file
AIN AIN Compressed archive
AIO APL transfer file
AIS ACDSee Image Sequence
AIS Velvet Studio Instruments file
AIS Xerox Arry of Intensity Samples Graphic
AIX HP NewWave Cardfile Application data
AKW Contains all A-keywords in the RoboHELP Help Project Index Designer not
associated with topics
ALAW European Telephony audio
ALIAS Alias Image
ALB JASC Image Commander album
ALI Document file (SAP proprietary format)
ALL Arts & Letters Library
ALL WordPerfect for Windows General printer information file
ALS Alias Image
ALT WordPerfect Library Menu
AM Applix SHELF Macro
AMF AMGC Compressed archive
AMG ACTOR System image
AMI Annotation file (Cocreate SolidDesigner)
AMS Velvet Studio music module (MOD) file
AMS Extreme's Tracker module
AN Text file (Sterling Software) (Groundworks COOL Business Team Model)
ANC Canon Computer Pattern Maker file that is a selectable list of pattern colors
ANI Microsoft Windows Animated cursor
ANM DeluxPaint Animation
ANN Windows 3.x Help annotation
ANS ANSI Text file
ANT SimAnt for Windows saved game
AOS Nokia 9000 Add-on software
AOT Applicatio binary object template file (ZenWorks snAPPshot)
AP Applix Presents file
AP WHAP Compressed Amiga archive
APC Compiled application file (Centura Team Developer)
APC Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver
APD Dynamic application library file (Centura Team Developer)
APD Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver
APF Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver
APF Project file (Allaire) (Created by Homesite)
API Application Program Interface; used by Adobe Acrobat
API Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver
APL Application library file (Centura Team Developer)
APL APL Workspace file
APP Normal mode application file (Centura Team Developer)
APP Symphony Add-in Application
APP Generated application or active document (Microsoft Visual FoxPro)
APP dBase Application Generator Object
APP DR-DOS Executable Application
APP FoxPro Generated Application
APR ArcView project file
APR Employee Appraiser Performance Review file
APR Lotus Approach 97 View file
APS Microsoft Visual C++ file
APS Advanced patching systems with error checking, (Similar to IPS)
APT Lotus Approach Data view file
APT Text mode application file (Centura Team Developer)
APX Lotus Approach Paradox-Specific information file
APX Borland C++ Appexpert database
AQ Applix data
ARC LH ARC (old version) compressed archive
ARC SQUASH Compressed archive
ARF Automatic Response file
ARI ARI Compressed archive
ARI Aristotle audio file
ARJ Robert Jung ARJ compressed archive (ARJ)
ARK ARC File Archiver CPM/Port archive
ARL AOL v4.0 organizer file
ARR Atari Cubase Arrangement
ART Xara Studio drawing
ART Canon Crayola art
ART Clip Art
ART Ray Tracer file
ART First Publisher Raster graphic
ART AOL Image file compressed using the Johson-Grace compression algorithm
ARX ARX Compressed Archive
AS Applix Spreadsheet
ASA Microsoft Visual InterDev file
ASC ASCII text file
ASC PGP armored encrypted file
ASD WinWord AutoSave file
ASD Lotus 1-2-3 Screen driver
ASD Microsoft Advanced Streaming Format (ASF) description file; opens with NSREX
ASD Astound Presentation
ASE Velvet Studio Sample file
ASF Music file (Electronic Arts)
ASF Microsoft Advanced Streaming Format
ASF StratGraphics Datafile
ASF Lotus 1-2-3 Screen font
ASH TASM 3.0 Assembly language header
ASI Borland C++/Turbo C Assembler Include file
ASM Assembler Language source file
ASM Pro/E assembly file
ASO Astound Dynamite Object
ASP Active Server Page (an HTML file containing a Microsoft server-processed script)
ASP Procomm Plus setup and connection script
ASP Astound Presentation
AST Astound multimedia file
AST Claris Works "assistant" file
ASV DataCAD Autosave file
ASX Cheyenne Backup script
ASX Microsoft Advanced Streaming Redirector file
ASX Video file
AT2 Aldus Persuasion 2.0 Auto Template
ATM Adobe Type Manager data/info file
ATT AT&T Group 4 bitmap
ATW AnyTime Deluxe for Windows personal information manager file from Individual
Software MultiModule screensaver
AU Sun/NeXT/DEC/UNIX sound file
AU Audio U-law (pronounced mu-law)
AUD Audio file (Westwood Studios) (Kyrandia 3,C&C,RedAlert,C&C:TS)
AUX TeX/LaTeX Auxilliary Reference file
AUX ChiWriter Auxilliary Dictionary file
AVA Avagio Publication
AVB Inculan Anti-Virus virus infected file
AVI Microsoft Audio Video Interleaved file for Windows movie
AVR Audio Visual Research file
AVS Application Visualization System file
AVS Stardent AVS-X Image
AVX File Extension (ArcView)
AW HP AdvanceWrite Text file
AW Applix Words file
AWD FaxView Document image
AWK AWK Script/Program
AWM Animation Works Movie
AWR Telsis file for digitally stored audio
AWS StatGraphics Data file
AXL ArcIMS XML project file
AXT ASCII application object template (ZenWorks snAPPshot)
AXX ARJ compressed file from a multi-volume archive (xx = a number from 01 to 99)
A3L Authorware 3.x library
A4L Authorware 4.x library
A5L Authorware 5.x library
A3M Authorware MacIntosh file (unpackaged)
A4M Authorware MacIntosh file (unpackaged)
A4P Authorware file (packaged without runtime)
A3W Authorware Windows file (unpackaged)
A4W Authorware Windows file (unpackaged)
A5W Authorware Windows file (unpackaged)

To the top of the page

B.          Bachelor
B           Besselian epoch (astronomy)
B           Bishop (chess)
B           blue
b.          born
B.A.        Bachelor of Arts
BAdW        Bavarian Academy of Sciences (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften),
Munich, Germany BAE British Aerospace, Australia BAKO Bako Surtanal, Indonesia BARD Bay Area Regional Deformation GPS Network, USA BARGN Basin and Range GPS Network, USA BAS Bulgarian Academy Sciences BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code BAT British American Tobacco Co. BATC Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, Boulder, CO, USA BAW British AirWays BBC BaseBand Converter BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BBS Bulletin Board System (Bulletin Board Services) BC Before Christ BC Blind Copy BC British Columbia (Canadian province) BCC Blind Carbon Copy (e-mail) BCC Business Computer Company BCD Binary-Coded Decimal (computing) BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine BCRS Barycentric Celestial Reference System BD Bonner Durchmusterung Bd. Boulevard (French) BDL Bureau des Longitudes, Paris Observatory, France BDT Barycentric Dynamical Time BE-C Beacon Explorer C satellite BEK International Commission for Global Geodesy of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
(Bayerische Kommission fuer die Internationale Erdmessung), Germany BEP Basic Earth Parameters BER Bit Error Rate BFEC Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, USA BfL Bundesamt fuer Landestopographie (Federal Office of Topography), Wabern,
Switzerland (the same as FOT, LPT, L+T) BGN Brain Games Network Co., GB BIF Binary Information Files (BIF) BIFROST Baseline Inferences for Fennoscandian Rebound Observations, Sea Level,
and Tectonics BIGS Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics BIH Bureau International de l'Heure, Paris, France (now BIPM) BIMA Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association, USA BIPM International Bureau for Weights and Measures
(Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), Paris, France (former BIH) BIOS Basic Input/Output System BIOS Built-in Operating System BISAM Basic Indexed Sequential Access Method bit BInary digiT BITnet Because It's Time Network BKG Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy
(Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodeasie), Frankfurt, Germany (formerly IfAG) B.L. Bachelor of Low bldg. building BLM Bureau of Land Management Blvd. Boulevard (French) B.M. Bachelor of Medicine BM Bench Mark BMP (Windows) Bitmap BNSC British National Space Center BOF Birds of a Feather (a kind of scientific meeting) BOJ Bank Of Japan BOT Beginning Of Tape (computing) BPE Bernese Processing Engine (GPS software) bpi bytes (bits) per inch bps bits per second Bps bytes per second BRD Broadcast Ephemeris BRI Basic Rate Interface BRS Barycentric Reference System B.S. Bachelor of Science BS Bright Stars BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method BSc Bachelor of Science BSC Binary Compatibility Specification BSD Berkeley Software Distribution BSL Baltic Sea Level BST British Summer Time (UTC + 1h) BSW Bernese Software BTS BIH Terrestrial System BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics, USA btw by the way Bull. Bulletin BW Bandwidth BWE Becker-White-Edwards (catalog) b/w black and white BWS BandWidth Synthesis

To the top of the page

C           Celsius (Centigrade)
C.          Comment
C           Commission
C4I         Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence
CA          California
ca          (circa) approximately, about
CA          Component Architecture (computing)
CA (C/A)    Coarse Acquisition (GPS)
CACS        Canadian Active Control System
CAD         Computer-Aided Design
CADC        Canadian Astronomy Data Center (HIA)
Cal.        California
Calif.      California
CALS        Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (image file format)
CALTECH     California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
CALTRANS    California Department of Transportation
CAM         Core Angular Momentum
CAMAC       Computer Automated Measurement And Control
CAMC        Carlsberg Automatic Meridian Circle
CAMMAC      Comets, Asteroids, Meteors, Meteorites, Astroblems, Craters
CAN         NASA Cooperative Agreement Notice
Cap.        Capital
CAS         Chinese Academy of Sciences
CASB        STScI Catalogs and Surveys Branch
CASC        Canadian Active Control System
CASE        Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CASM        Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping
CAT         MRAO Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope
CATS        Astrophysical CATalogs support System (Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS,
Russia) CATS Central Asian Tectonic Sciences program CAY Centro Astronomico de Yebes, Spain CB Central Bureau CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corp. CBIS IGS Central Bureau Information System CBK Space Research Center PAN
(Centrum Badan Kosmicznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk), Warsaw, Poland CBN Canadian Base Net CBR Constant Bit Rate CBT Congress Business Travel Ltd. CC Carbon Copy CC Compilation Catalog cc cubic centimeter CCC Correlator Control Computer (VLBI) CCD Charged Coupled Device CCDM Catalog of the Components of Double and Multiply Systems CCDS Comite Consultatif pour la Definition de la Seconde CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee CCLRC Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils, UK CCNet Cambridge Conference Network, UK CCO Cisco Connection Online CCR Corner Cube Reflector CCT Computer Compatible Tape CCTF Consultative Committee for the Time and Frequency
(Comite Consultatif du Temps et des Frequences) CCU Comite Consultatif des Unites CD Change Directory CD Compact Disc CD Cordoba Durchmusterung CDAS Climate Data Analysis System CdC Map of the Sky (Carte du Ciel) CDC Control Data Corp., USA CDDIS NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System CDE Common Desktop Environment (HP) CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CDP NASA Crustal Dynamics Project CDS Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg, France CDSCC NASA Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, Spain CDSLR Crustal Dynamics Satellite Laser Ranging CDSM Chief Directorate Surveys and Mapping, South Africa CDT U.S. Central Daylight Time (UTC - 5h) CDU Control/Display Unit CEA Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEDR Center for Earth Dynamics Research, Czech Republic CEE Centro de Estudios Espaciales, University de Chile, Chile CEGRN Central Europe GPS Reference Network CEI Central European Initiative CEI Connected Element Interferometer CEJP Central European Journal of Physics Celes. Celestial Celest. Celestial CEO Celestial Ephemeris Origin CEO Center for Earth Observation CEO Chief Executive Officer CEP Celestial Ephemeris Pole CEReS Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Japan CERES Consortium for European Research on Extragalactic Surveys CERFACS European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation
(Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scientifique) CERGA Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Geodynamique et Astrometrie (Astronomigue),
France CERGOP Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project CERN Center for European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Switzerland CET Central European Time (UTC + 1h) cf. (Lat. confer) compare CF Constant Factor CfA Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MA, USA CFD Constant Fraction Discriminator (electronics) CFHT Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation CfP Call for Participation CGA Color Graphics Adapter CGFF Canadian Geodetic Fringe Fitting (software, DRAO) CG-IC China Geoinformatic Center of the Chinesse Academy of Surveying and Mapping CGI Common Gateway Interface CGLBI Canadian Geodetic Long Baseline Interferometry CGM Computer Graphics Metafile CGPM General Conference on Weights and Measures
(Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures) CGPS Canadian Galactic Plane Survey CGPS Continuous GPS CGS Centimeter-Gram-Second system CGS ASI Space Geodesy Center (Centro di Geodesia Spaziale), Matera, Italy,
the same as CSG CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGU Canadian Geophysical Union CHAMP Challenging Mini-satellite Payload CHARA Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Chem. Chemical Chem. Chemistry CIA U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIC CIGNET Information Center, Rockville, MD, USA CICESE Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Education Superior de Encenada, Mexico CID Charged Injection Device CID Criminal Investigation Department CIE Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (Compagnie Internationale de l'Eclairade) CIGNET Cooperative International GPS Network CIIR Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval CIO Conventional International Origin CIP Celestial Intermediate Pole CIPE Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Germany CIPM International Committee for Weights and Measures
(Comite International des Poids et Mesures) CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CIS Conventional Inertial System CISAS Center of Studies and Activities for Space
(Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Attivita' Spaziali)
of the University of Padova cit. cited CITES Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species CIW Carnegie Institute of Washington, Wasington, DC, USA C-LAR Canadian Large Adaptive Reflector CLCS Checkout and Launch Control System, NASA CLFST MRAO Cambridge Low-Frequency Synthesis Telescope CLG Central Laboratory of Geodesy, Sofia, Bulgaria CLIPS Climate Information and Prediction Services CLPP Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing, Bulgaria CLS CLear Screen CLS Collecte Localization Satellites, Ramonville Cedex, France CLX Component Library for Cross Platforms (Borland) CM Center of Mass CMASF San Fernando Automatic Meridian Circle CMB Center-of-Mass Ballance CMB Core-Mantle Boundary CMB Cosmic Microwave Background CMC Carlsberg Meridian Catalog CMC Common Massaging Calls (API) C.M.G. Companion of the order of St. Michael & St. George (UK) CML Combined Membership List CMMACS CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation,
Bangalore, India CMONOC Crustal Movement Observation Network of China CMOS Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor CMT Carlsberg Meridian Telescope CMVA Coordinated Millimeter VLBI Array, USA CNES French Space Agency (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), Toulouse, France CNN Cable News Network, USA CNR Communication Network Riser (PC slot) CNR National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), Italy CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France CNS Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS Systems, Inc.), Severna Park,
MD, USA c/o care of CO Colorado Co. Company COAST MRAO Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope COBOL COmmon Business-Oriented Language COBRAS COsmic Background Radiation Anisotropy Satellite C.O.D. Cash On Delivery COD Center for Orbit Determination CODASYL COnference on DAta SYstem Language, USA CODATA Committee on Data for Science and Technology CODE Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, AIUB, Bern, Switzerland CODMAC ILRS Committee on Data Management, Archiving, and Computing COHIG Core-O'Higgins VLBI experiments COI Co-Investigator COKE Connected between OLIVE and KSP network Experiment, Japan Col. Colonel Col. Colorado Col. College Coll. Colloquium Colo. Colorado CoM Center-of-Mass COM Component Object Model Comm. Communication (technology) Comm. Communications (journal) CONAE COmision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, Argentina Conf. Conference CONFOR CONnection of Frames in Optical and Radio regions Conn. Connecticut Cont. Continued Cont. Contract CONUS Continental United States COO Chief Operating Officer Coop. Cooperative COP Code predicted (orbit) COPUOS UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space CORDIS EU Community Research & Development Information Service CORE Continuous Observations of the Rotation of the Earth Corp. Corporation CORS Continuously Operating Reference Stations COSIS Copernicus Online Service and Information System COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate COSPAR Committee on Space Research COSPAS-SARSAT COsmicheskaya Systema Poiska Avariinyh Sudov - Search And Rescue SATellite,
Russia COSTAR Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (HST) COSTED Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries COTES Conventional Terrestrial Reference System COTS Commercial Off The Shelf COWAT Coaxial Wave-guide Transformer CP Collaborative Programs CP Command Processor cp. compare CP NASA STI Conference Publication CPC Cape Photographic Catalog CPC IERS Conventions Product Center CPD Cape Photographic Durchmusterung cpd cycles per day CPIRSS USNO Catalog of Positions of Infrared Stellar Sources CPO Celestial Pole Offset CPS Certification Practice Statement cps character per second cpsd cycles per sidereal day Cpt. Captain CPU Central Processing Unit CR Carriage Return CR Choke Ring (antenna) CR NASA STI Contractor Report CRAAE Center for Radio Astronomy and Space Applications
(Centro de Radio Astronomia e Aplicacoes Espaciais), Brazil CRC Camera Ready Copy CRC IERS Combination Research Center CRDF Civilian R&D Foundation for the Independent States of the FSU, USA CRESTech Center for Research in Earth and Space Technology, Canada CRF Celestial Reference Frame CRL Communications Research Laboratory, Japan CRLHI CRL Hiraiso Solar Terrestrial Research Center, Ibaraki, Japan CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (NPOESS) CRMS Clock RMS (IGS) CRS Celestial Reference System CRT Cathode Ray Tube CS Communication Satellite CS CornerStoun mission (ESA) CSA Canadian Space Agency CSB China Seismological Bureau CSBN IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature CSC Computer Science Corp., Silver Spring, MD, USA CSC Computer Sciences Corp., Falls Church, VA, USA CSG ASI Center of Spatial Feodesy (Centro di Geodesia Spaziale), Matera, Italy,
the same as CGS CSIC Spanish Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas) CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, India CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia CSnet Computer Science Network CSO California Institute of Technology 10.4-m Submillimeter Telescope, Mauna Kea,
HI, USA CSOC Consolidated Space Operations Contract, NASA, USA CSPAD Compensated Single Photon Avalanche Diode CSR Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA, USA CSR Center for Space Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA CSR Concept Study Report CSRC California Spatial Reference Center, San Diego, CA, USA CSRIFS Combined Square Root Information Filter and Smoother CSRS Canadian Spatial Reference System CSS Cascading Style Sheets CST U.S. Central Standard Time (UTC - 6h) CST China Standard Time (UTC + 8h) CSTC Air Force Sunnyvale Consolidated Space Test Center, USA CSTG IAG Commission VIII - International Coordination of Space Techniques
for Geodesy and Geodynamics CSTP Council for Science and Technology Policy, Japan CT Connecticut Ct. Court CTE Charge Transfer Efficiency (CCD) CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion CTIO Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena, Chile CTIP CSIRO Telecommunications & Industrial Physics Ctl Control CTLRS Chinese Transportable Laser Ranging System CTO Chief Technology Officer Ctrl Control CTRS Conventional Terrestrial Reference System CTS Canadian Technology Satellite CTS Conventional Terrestrial System CTU FNSPE Czech Technical University Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering CTVA Canadian Transportable VLBI Antenna CU University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA CU see you CUO Copenhagen University Observatory CV Common View CV Curriculum Vitae CW Chandler Wobble CZIN Czech Institute of Navigation

To the top of the page

D           Defender (sport)
D.          Democrat (a member of the Democratic Party)
D           Division
D.          Doctor
D           Draws (sport)
DA          Digital-to-Analog
DA          District Attorney
DAAC        NASA/JPL Distributed Active Archive Center
DAC         Data Analysis Center
DAC         Digital-to-Analog Convertor
DAL         Delta AirLines, USA
DAM         Direct Access Method
DAN         Canadian Network
DANOF       Departement d'Astronomie Fondamentale, Paris Observatory, France (now SYRTE)
DAO         Data Access Objects
DAO         NASA/GSFC Data Assimilation Office
DAO         Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada
DARA        German Space Agency
DARPA       Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA
DART        Dynamic Advertising Reporting Targeting
DAS         Data Acquisition System (VLBI)
DAS         Data Analysis System
DASD        Direct Access Storage Device
DASOS       DAS Operating System (VLBI)
DAT         Data Acquisition Terminal (VLBI)
DB          Data Base
DB          Directing Board
DBCS        Double-Byte Character Set
DBH         Data Base Handler (Mark-3 VLBI file format)
dble        Double
DBMS        Data Base Management System
DC          Data Center
DC          Device Context
DC          Direct Current
DC          District of Columbia
DCB         Data Control Block
DCB         Device Control Block
DCB         Differential Code Bias (GPS)
DCE         Data Communication Equipment
DCL         Digital Command Language
DCS         Data Collecting System
DD          NOAA FSL Demonstration Division
DD          Double Density
DD          Double Difference (GPS)
DD          Dual-Depth (GPS antenna)
D-day       Designated day
DDE         Dynamic Data Exchange
DDI         Device Driver Interface
DDN         Defense Data Network
DDNA        Divided Difference Noise Analysis
DDT         DichloroDiphenylTrichloroethane
DDX         Dialog Data Exchange
DE          Declination
DE          Delaware
Dec         December
Dec         Declination
DEC         Digital Equipment Corp., USA
DECnet      DEC networking product
def.        Defeat
Def.        Definition
Del.        Delaware
Del.        Delete
Dem.        Democrat (a member of the Democratic Party)
DEM         Digital Elevation Model
DEOS        Delft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space Research, the Netherlands
dep.        Deputy
Dept.       Department
DET         Detachment
DF          Defender (sport)
DF&P WG     ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group
DFPWG       ILRS Data Formats and Procedures Working Group
DFN         Deutsches Forschungnetz, Germany
DFNK        German Research Network on Natural Disasters
DFRF        Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, CA, USA
DFS         Duty Free Shop
DFT         Discrete Fourier Transformation
DFTNIC      NASA/GSFC Data Flow Technology Network Information Center
DG          Delay Generator (electronics)
DGFI        German Geodetic Research Institute (Deutsches Geodaetisches ForschungsInstitut),
Munich, Germany DGGA Dense GPS Geodetic Array, USA DGK German Geodetic Commission (Deutsche Geodaetische Kommission) DGON German Institute of Navigation (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Ortung und Navigation) DGPS Differential GPS DGRS Dynamically nonrotating Geocentric Reference System DHS IUHPS Division of History of Science DHTML Dynamic HTML DIB Device Independent Bitmap DIF DOMES Information Form DIQ Data and Information Quality DIM Data Input Module DIMM Dual In-line Memory Module DIOGENE Determination Immediate d'Orbite par GPS Et Navigateur Embarque DIR DIRectory DIS Data Information System DITT Department of Land, Noumea, New Caledonia Div. Division DIVA Double Interferometer for Visual Astrometry satellite DJ DeskJet printer DJ Disc Jockey DL Dynamically Loaded DLA Defense Logistics Agency, USA DLL Dynamic Link Library DLR German Aerospace Center
(Deutsche Forshungsanstalt fuer Luft- and Raumfart e.V.), Neustrelitz, Germany DM Deutsche Mark DM (D/M) Dorne-Margolin (GPS antenna) DMCR Dorne-Margolin Choke Ring (GPS antenna) DMA U.S. Defence Mapping Agency DMA Direct Memory Access DMAHTC DMA Hydrographic and Topographic Center DMI David Malin Images DMS Data Measurement System DMSA Double and Multiply Stars Annex (Hipparcos) DMSP DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, USA DMZ DeMilitarized Zone DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid DNS Domain Name System (Domain Name Service) (Internet) DOC DOCument, DOCumentation DoD U.S. Department of Defense dof degree of freedom (statistics) DOGS DGFI Orbit and Geodetic parameter estimation System DOM Data Output Module DOMES Directory of Merit Sites DOMEX DOMEs EXtended DOP Dilution of Precision (GPS) DORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite DOS Department of Space, India DOS Disk Operating System DOSE Dynamics of the Solid Earth DOSLI Department of Survey and Land Information, Wellington, New Zealand DOT Data Observe Time (VSI) DoT U.S. Department of Transportation DOT Dynamic Ocean Topography DOY Day of Year DP Double Precision D-PAF Germany Processing and Analysis (Archiving) Facility, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany dpi dots per inch DPL Data Prefetch Logic DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface DPMS Dahlgren Polar Monitoring Service DPS Data Processing System DPS Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory DRI Desert Research Institute, NV, USA DRP Driver Registration Packet DQA Data Quality Analysis DQE Detective Quantum Efficiency Dr. Doctor DRAO HIA Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton, BC, Canada DRE Doppler Ranging Equipment DREN Defense Research and Engineering Network DRF Delay Resolution Function DS Strassburg Center of Astronomical Data
(Centre de Donnes Astronomiques de Strasburg), France DS Double Sided (disk) DSC Digital Selective Calling DSD Defense Signal Directorate, Australia DSGS Densely Spaced Geodetic Systems DSIR/PEL Department of Scientific & Industrial Researches / Physics
& Engineering Laboratory, Lauder, New Zealand DSL Digital Subscriber Line DSN NASA/JPL Deep Space Network D.S.O. Distinguished Service Order (UK) DSP Digital Signal Processing DSP Digital Signal Processor DSS NASA/JPL Deep Space Station DSS STScI Digitized Sky Survey DST Daylight Savings Time DSU Data Service Unit DTD Document Type Definition DTM Digital Terrain Map DTS Data Transmission System (VLBI) DUACS Developing Use of Altimetry for Climate Studies DUT Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands DUT/OSG DUT Observatory for Space Geodesy, the Netherlands DVD Digital Video Disk DVI Digital Visual Interface D.W. Daily Worker (newspaper) DX Duplex Dyn. Dynamical dz. dozen

To the top of the page

E           East
EA          Exchange of Astronomers
EAAE        European Association for Astronomy Education
EAAM        Effective Atmospheric Angular Momentum
EAGE        European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers
EAM         Effective Angular Momentum
EAM         Federal Office of Metrology, Switzerland
EARN        European Academic Research Network
EBCDIC      Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EBRY        Eastern Basin Range Yellowstone, USA
EBS         Electron Bombarded Silicon
EC          Environment Canada
EC          European Commission
EC          European Council
EC          Executive Committee
ECB         European Central Bank
ECDIS       Electronic Chart Display and Information System
ECEF        Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed reference frame
ECGN        European Combined Geodetic Network
ECI         Earth-Centered Inertial reference frame
ECMWF       European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting
ECOM        Extended CODE Orbit Model
ECP         Enhanced Capability Port
ECRA        Eastern Center for Research in Astrophysics, IRE, India
Ed.         Edited
Ed.         Editor
Eds.        Editors
ED          European Datum
EDC         EROS Data Center
EDC         EUROLAS Data Center, Munich, Germany
EDC DAAC    EROS/EOSDIS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center
EDGE        Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EDM         Electronic Distance Measuring (Measurement)
EDO         Extended Data Out (RAM)
EDT         U.S. Eastern Daylight Time (UTC - 4h)
EEC         European Economic Community
EELV        Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (US Air Force)
EEP         Einstein Equivalence Principle
EEPROM      Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EET         Electronic Engineering Times (newspaper)
EFTA        European Free Trade Association
e.g.        (Lat. exempli gratia) for instance
EGA         Extended (Enhanced) Graphics Adapter
EGM         Earth Gravity Model
EGNOS       European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EGS         European Geophysical Society (now EGU)
EGS         Experimental Geodetic Satellite
EGU         European Geosciences Union (former EGS + former EUG)
EHF         Extra High Frequency
EIDS        European Integrity Determination System (GalileoSat)
EIH         Einstein-Infeld-Hoffman (equations)
EISA        Extended Industry Standard Architecture
El          Elevation
ELDP        European Lake Drilling Program
Elect.      Electrical
Electron.   Electronics
ELF         Extra Low Frequency
ELV         Expendable Launch Vehicle
ELVIS       Expendable Launch Vehicle Integrated Support
EM          ElectroMagnetic
EMB         Earth-Moon Barycenter
EMIR        European Microgravity Research Program
EMP         EMR predicted (orbit)
EMPV        Epoch of Minimal Position Variance
EMR         Now NRCan
eNav        Electronic Navigation
ENC         Electronic Nautical Chart
ENE         East-Northeast
Eng.        Engineer(s)
Eng.        Engineering
ENIAC       Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
ENSO        El Nino / Southern Oscillation (meteorology)
ENVISAT     ENVIronmental SATellite
EOAM        Effective Oceanic Angular Momentum
EOC         NASDA Earth Observation Center
EOF         End of file
EOM         End of Month
EOP         Earth Orientation Parameters
EOPAP       NASA Earth and Ocean Physics Application Program
EOS         Earth Observing System
EOS         Electro Optical Systems, Australia
EOS         European Optical Society
EOSDIS      NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System
EOT         End Of Tape (computing)
EOV         End Of Volume (computing)
EOY         End of Year
EPIRB       Emergency Position Indicating Radiobeacon
EPL         Excess Path Length
EPN         European Permanent GPS Network
EPP         Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROM       Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPRSC       Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK
EPS         Encapsulated PostScript
EPUSP-PTR   Escola Politecnica da USP-PTR
EQ          EarthQuake
eq.         equal
eq.         equation
eq.         equivalent
eqs.        equations
ERA         Earth Rotation Angle
ERA         Ephemeris Research in Astronomy (software, IAA)
ERCOFTAC    European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence and Combustion
ERDE        VLBI Extended Research and Development Experiment
ERI         Earthquake Research Institute, Tokio University, Japan
ERI         Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokio, Japan
ERIDOC      European Radio Interferometry and Doppler Observational Campaign
ERLcat      USNO Extragalactic Reference Link Catalog
EROLD       Earth Rotation from Lunar Distances (LLR project)
EROS        NASA/USGS Earth Resources Observation Systems
(Earth Resources Observing Satellite) ERP Earth Rotation Parameters ERP Enterprise Resource Planning ERS Earth Resources Satellite ERS Environmental Research Satellite ERS European Remote Sensing satellite ERS Extragalactic Radio Source ERTS NASA Earth Resources Technology Satellite ESA European Space Agency ESATT European Science and Technology Transfer Network ESC ESCape ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESD ElectroStatic Discharge ESDCD NASA/GSFC Earth and Space Data Computing Division ESE NASA Earth Science Enterprise ESE East-Southeast ESG European Society of Geodesy ESI Edge Side Includes (HTML extension) ESL English as a Second Language ESLRS NASA/GSFC Experimental Satellite Laser Ranging System ESMF NASA/UCAR Earth System Modeling Framework project ESO European Southern Observatory ESOC European Space Operations Center esp. especially ESP ESA predicted (orbit) ESPERE Environmental Science Published for Everybody Round the Earth ESPP Employee Stock Purchase Plan ESRIN European Space Research Institute ESSP Earth System Science Pathfinder ES SRIPRM East-Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Physics-technical
and Radio-technical Measurements (VS NIIFTRI) EST U.S. Eastern Standard Time (UTC - 5h) ESTEC ESA European Space Research and Technology Center ESTEDI European Spatio-Temporal Data Infrastructure for High-Performance Computing ESTO NASA Earth Science Technology Office ET Ephemeris Time ETA Expected Time of Arrival et al. (Lat. et alii) and others etc. (Lat. et cetera) and others, and so on ETC IAG Earth Tide Commission ETH Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus ETRS European Terrestrial Reference System ETS Engineering Test Satellite ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute EU European Union EUG European Union of Geosciences (now EGU) EUGIN European Group of Institutes of Navigation EUR Europe EURD Experiment for the Detection of the UV Background Radiation (LAEFF, Spain) EUREF Subcommission for Europe of the IAG Commission X EUREF European Reference Frame EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of METeorological SATellites EUROLAS European Laser Consortium Euro-SPAN European Space Physics Analysis Network EUSO Extreme Universe Space Observatory (ESA) EUVN European Vertical GPS Reference Network EVA Extravehicular Activity E-VLBI Electronic Transfer VLBI EVN European VLBI Network EVRF European Vertical Reference Frame EVRS European Vertical Reference System EW East-West exc. except

To the top of the page

F           Fahrenheit
F           Female
F           Fortran
F           Forward (sport)
F2F         face to face
FAA         U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
FAA         Foundation for the Advancement of Astronomy, Australia
FAG         Frequently Asked Questions
FAGS        Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services
FAME        Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (NASA/USNO)
FAS         Federation of American Scientists
FAT         File Access Table (File Allocation Table)
FAX         Facsimile System
FBI         U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBL         Fairhead-Bretagnon-Lestrade model of TDB-TDT
FCC         U.S. Federal Communications Commission
FCN         Free Core Nutation
FDB         File Description Block
FDC         France Development Council
FDD         Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI        Fiber Distibuted Data Interface
FDMA        Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDR         Foundation for Research Development, South Africa
FDX         Full DupleX
Feb         February
FedEx       Federal Express
FEM         Finite Element Method (mathematics)
FEMA        U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
FESG        Detlef Angermann Research Facility for Space Geodesy
(Forschungseinrichtung Satellitengeodaesie), Technical University Munich, Germany FET Field Effect Transistor FF French Frank FFDP Far Field Diffraction Pattern FFI Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Forsvarets ForskningsInstitutt), Norway FFT Fast Fourier Transformation FGCC U.S. Federal Geodetic Control Committee FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee, USA FGI Finnish Geodetic Institute, Helsinki, Finland FGNP Field Generated Normal Points FGS Fine Guidance Sensor (HST) FGS Research Group for Satellite Geodesy (Forschungsgruppe Satellitengeodaesie),
Germany (BKG, FESG, DGFI, GIUB) FHA U.S. Federal Highway Administration FHWA U.S. Federal Highway Administration FIB File Identification Block FICN Free Inner Core Nutation FIDE International Chess Federation (Federation Internationale de Echecs) FIF Fractal Image Format FIFA International Federation of Football Associations
(Federation Internationale de Football Associations) FIFE First ISLSCP Field Experiment FIFO First-In, First-Out Fig. Figure FIG International Federation of Surveyors (Federation Internationale des Geometres) FINLAS Metsahovi Laser Station, Finland FIRST Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm FIS FIFE Information System FITS Flexible Image Transport System FK Fundamental Catalog FL Fixed Laser System FL Florida f.l. focal length Fla. Florida FLINN Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural science Network FM Frequency Modulated FM Frequency Modulation FNRS Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium FNW Free Network Analysis (GPS) FO Fiber Optic FOC Faint Object Camera (HST) FOC Fluid Outer Core FOMI FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Hungary FORTRAN FORmula TRANslator FOT Federal Office of Topography (Bundesamt fuer Landestopographie),
Wabern, Switzerland (the same as BfL, LPT, L+T) FOT Flight Operations Team FOV Field of View FPAG ESA SPC Fundamental Physics Working Group FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array FPN FootPrint Network FR Full-Rate FRA U.S. Federal Railroad Administration FRCN IUGG Fundamental Reference and Calibration Network FRD Foundation for Research and Development, South Africa FRG Federal Republic of Germany Fri Friday Frm. Former FRP Federal Radionavigation Plan, USA FRS Federal Radionavigation Systems, USA FS Field System (VLBI) FSD File System Driver FSF Free Software Foundation FSG Forschungsgruppe Satellitengeodeasie, TU Munich, Germany FSL NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory FSL/DD NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory Demonstration Division FSSR Frequency Selective Sub-Reflector FSU Former Soviet Union ft. foot, feet Ft. Fort FT Fourier Transform FTBPF Fourier Transform Band Pass Filter FTLRS French Transportable Laser Ranging System FTP File Transfer Protocol (Internet) FTS Fourier Transform Spectroscopy FUSE NASA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer FV Fixed VLBI System FW Fire Wall FW Forward (sport) FWD Four-Wheel Drive FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum

To the top of the page

GA          General Assembly
GA          Georgia
GA          Geoscience Australia (former AUSLIG)
GA          Goals Against (sport)
GAIA        Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics
GALAXY      Giga-bit Astronomical Large Array with cross connect, Japan
GALEX       NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer
GAMIT       Gps At MIT (software)
GARNET      GSI Advanced Radiotelescope Net}work, Japan
GAOUA       Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
G.A.R       Great American Revolution (the War of Independence)
GARS        German Antarctic Receiving Station, O'Higgins, Antarctica
GAPE        Great Alaska and Pacific VLBI Experiment
GARS        German Antarctic Receiving Station
GAS         GPS Analysis Software
GASP        GPS Atmosphere Sounding Project, Germany
GAST        Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time
GATS        General Agreement on Trade in Services
GAVRT       Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope
GAW         Global Atmosphere Watch
Gb          Gigabit
GB          Gigabyte
GB          Good Bye
GB          Governing Board
GB          Great Britain
GBI         NRAO Green Bank Interferometer
Gbps        Gigabits per second
GBps        Gigabytes per second
GBR         GigaBit data Recorder
GBSS        Geodetic Base Station Software
GBT         NRAO Green Bank Telescope, WV, USA
GC          General Catalog
GCDC        NASA/GSFC Global Change Data Center
GCGO        Gilmore Creek Geophysical Observatory, Fairbanks, AK, USA
GCOS        Global Climate Observing System
GCRS        Geocentric Celestial Reference System
GCS         Ground Control System (GalileoSat)
GCV         Green Card Visa Organization, USA
GCVS        General Catalog of Variable Stars
GDA         Geocentric Datum of Australia
GDC         Global Data Center
GDI         Graphics Device Interface
GDOP        Geometric Dilution of Precision (GPS)
GDR         Geophysical Data Record
GDR         German Democratic Republic
GDRF        Galactic Dynamical Reference Frame
GDSCC       Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex
GDSN        Global Digital Seismograph Network
GE          General Electric Co., USA
GEANT       Development of the Network Infrastructure for pan-European Research
GEDEX       GEodetic Demonstration EXperiment (HALCA mission)
GEMSTONE    GEodetic Measurements by the collocation of Space Techniques ON Earth
GENI        Global Energy Network Institute, San Diego, CA, USA
GEO         Geostationary Earth Orbit (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit)
Geod.       Geodesy
GeoDAF      Geodetical Data Archive Facility, Matera, Italy
GeodIS      Geodetic Information System, Germany
GEODSS      Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep-Space Surveillance, USA
Geodyn.     Geodynamics
GEONET      Geodynamic GPS Networks
GEONET      GPS Earth Observation Network, Japan
Geoph.      Geophysical
Geophys.    Geophysical
GEOS        Geodetic and Earth Orbiting Satellite
GEOSAT      GEOdesy SATellite
Geosci.     Geoscience(s)
GES         NASA GSFC Earth Sciences
GESS        Global Earthquake Satellite System
GEST        Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center (GSFC)
GeTT        Geodetic Time Transfer
GEWEX       Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
GEX         Gigabit EXperiment (VLBI, Japan)
GF          Goals For (sport)
GFE         Government Furnished Equipment
GFO         GEOSAT Follow-On program
GFP         GFZ predicted (orbit)
GFZ         GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany
GGAO        Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GGF         Global Geophysical Fluids
GGFC        IERS Global Geophysical Fluids Center
GGP         Global Geodynamics Project (Gravity)
GGN         Global GPS network
GGP         Global Geodynamics Project (Gravity)
GGSS        Geodetic and Geophysical Sites Subcommission
GHA         Greenwich Hour Angle
GHMA        Greek Hellenic Mapping Agency
GI          Geological Institute, Russia
GIA         Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, USA
GIBN        Global Interoperability of Broadband Networks
GIBS        GPS Information and Observation System, Germany
GICO        Giga-bit Correlator
GIF         Graphic Image (Interchange) Format (CompuServe)
GIFT        Geophysical Information for Teachers
GIFT        Gifu University Telescope, Japan
GIG         GPS IERS and Geodynamics Experiment
GIGGOS      Global Integrated Geodetic and Geodynamic Observing System
GIGO        Garbage-In, Garbage-Out
GIGOLO      Global Information on Gravity Over Land & Ocean
GIM         Global Ionosphere Map (Model)
GIPSY       GPS-Inferred Positioning System
GIS         Geographic Information System (GeoInformation System)
GISS        Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, USA
GIUA        Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA
GIUB        Geodetic Institute of the University of Bonn, Germany
GJRO        German-Japanese Earth Rotation Observations VLBI campaign
GK          GoalKeeper (sport)
GL          Geosciences Laboratory
GLAS        Geoscience Laser Altimeter System
GLI         Global Imager
GLONASS     GLObal NAvigation Satellite System, Russia
GLORIA      GLObal Radio Interferometry Analysis (software, OPA)
GLOSS       Global Level Of the Sea Surface (Global Sea Level Observing Systems)
GLRS        Geodynamics Laser Ranging System
GLRS        Geophysical Laser Ranging System
GLTN        Goddard Laser Tracking Network, USA
GM          Grand Master (chess)
GM          Gravity Model
GMDSS       Global Maritime Distress & Safety System
GMEM        Generalized Maximum Entropy Method
GMOS        Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (UKATC/ROE)
GMRT        Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope, India
GMST        Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time
GMT         Generic Mapping Tools (software)
GMT         Greenwich Mean Time
GNAAC       IGS Global Network Associate Analysis Center
GNO         NASA/JPL GPS Networks and Operations Group
GNOG        NASA/JPL GPS Networks and Operations Group
GNOS        NASA/JPL GPS Network Operating System
GNRT        NASA/JPL Generalized Near-Real Time
GNS         Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand
GNSS        Global Navigation Satellite System
GNU         GNU's Not Unix
GOCE        Global Ocean Circulation Explorer (Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer)
GO          General Observer programs (SIRTF)
GODAE       Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment
GODC        NOAA Geosciences Laboratory Operational Data Center
GOES        Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GOME        Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment
GOMOS       Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars
GOOS        Global Ocean Observing System
GOPE        Geodetic Observatory, Pecny, Ondrejov, Czech Republic
GORF        Goddard Optical Research Facility, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GOT         General Observing Time (VSOP)
GOTEX       Global Orbit Tracking Experiment
GP-B        Gravity Probe B satellite
GPF         General Protection Fault
GPIB        General-Purpose Interface Bus
GPL         GNU General Public License
GPRS        General Packet Radio Service
GPS         Global Positioning System
GPSDR       GPS Demonstration Receiver
GPSIC       GPS Industry Council
GPSMET      GPS METeorology mission
GPST        GPS Time
GRACE       NASA Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment
GRAPE       GPS Range And Phase Data Processing for the Earth Sciences (software, IAA)
GRAS        George R. Agassiz VLBI Station, Ft. Davis, TX, USA (the same as HRAS)
GRELAS      Dionysos Laser Station, Greece
GRDL        NOAA Geosciences Research and Development Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD, USA
GRGS        Groupe de Recherche de Geodesie Spatiale, France
GRIM        GPS Receiver Interface Module
GRL         Geophysical Research Letters (journal)
GROB        HP-48sx Graphic Object
GROSS       Geodynamics, Rotation of the Earth, Orbit determination Searching Software (IAA)
GRS         Geocentric Reference System
GRS         Geodetic Reference System
GRSS        Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
GRT         General Relativity Theory
GRT         Ground Radio Telescope
GS          General Secretary
GS          Geochemical Society
GS          Globular Cluster
GS          General Schedule (U.S. Federal Wage System)
GSA         Geological Society of America
GSAC        GPS Seamless Archive Center
GSC         Geological Survey of Canada
GSC         Guide Star Catalog
GSD         NRCan Geodetic Survey Division
GSFC        NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
GSI         Geographical Survey Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
GSM         Global System for Mobile communications
GSN         GCOS Surface Network
GSN         Global Seismographic Network
GSO         GeoStationary Orbit
GSOC        German Space Operations Center, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
GSS         Geodetic Survey Squadron
GSSF        GalileoSat System Simulation Facility
GST         GAIA Science Team
GST         Galileo System Time (GalileoSat)
GST         Greenwich Sidereal Time
GSTS        Global Space telescope Schedule
GTC         Gran Telescopio Canarias
GTE         General Telephone and Electric, USA
GTO         Geostationary Transfer Orbit
GTOS        Global Terrestrial Observing System
GTSN        Global Telemetered Seismograph Network
GUAN        GCOS Upper-Air Network
GUI         Graphical User Interface
GUID        Globally Unique Identifier
GUTS        Global and high accUracy Trajectory determination System (software, NASDA)
GVH         Geo-VLBI Handler
GVWG        Global VLBI Working Group (URSI Commission J)
GVWGTWG     GVWG Technical Working Group
GW          Gravitational Waves
GWE         Gravitational Wave Experiment (Cassini mission)
GWEN        Ground Wave Emergency Network
GZ          GEOZUP Company, Moscow, Russia

To the top of the page

H           Height
HAARP       High frequency Active Auroral Research Program program
HALCA       Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy satellite, Japan
HAMK        Hispano-Argentinean Meridian Catalogue
HAND        Nave A Nice Day
HA-NDGPS    High Accuracy - Nationwide Differential GPS, USA
HartRAO     Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, South Africa
HAVAGO      Horizontal and Vertical Adjustment of Geodetic Observations
HBR         High Bit Rate
h.c.        (lat. honoris causa) by reason of honor
HC          House of Commons
HCDN        USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network
HCRF        Hipparcos Celestial Reference Frame
HD          Hard Disk
HD          Henry Draper catalog
HD          High Density
HDAM        Hierarchical Direct Access Method
HDD         Hard Disk Drive
HDF         Hubble Deep Field
HDF-S       Hubble Deep Field - South
HDJ         Hydrographic Department, Japan
HDL         Hardware Description Language
HDLC        High-level Data Link Control (communication protocol)
HDOP        Horizontal Dilution of Precision (GPS)
HDR         High-data-rate
HDSL        High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
HDT         Hawaiian Daylight Time (UTC - 9h)
HDT         High Density Tape
HDTV        High-Definition TeleVision
HE          His/Her Eminence
HE          His/Her Excellency
HEASARC     GSFC High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center
HEMT        High Electron Mobility Transistor
HEO         High Eliptical Orbit
HEPnet      High Energy Physics Network
HESSI       NASA High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager spacecraft (now RHESSI)
HET         Hobby-Eberly Telescope, McDonald Observatory, TX, USA
HETE        NASA High Energy Transient Experiment
HF          High Frequency
HFET        Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor
HI          Hawaii
HIA         Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Canada
HIDAM       Hierarchical Indexed Direct Access Method
HIPPARCOS   HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite
HIRAN       High Rate Navigation
HIRLAM      High Resolution Limited Area Modelling (meteorology)
HISAM       Hierarchical Indexed Sequential Access Method
HIV         Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HL          House of Lords
HM          His/Her Majesty
HMC         Hydrogen Maser Clock
HMNAO       Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office, UK
HMF         Haystack Mapping Function
HMI         Human-Machine Interface
HO          MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA, USA
HOLLAS      Haleakala Laser Station, Maui, HI, USA
HOPLAS      Mount Hopkins Laser Station, Mt. Hopkins, AZ, USA
HOPS        Haystack Observatory Postprocessing System
HOW         Hand Over World
HP          Hewlett Packard
HPC         High Performance Computing
HPF         High Pass Filter
HPNA        Home Phone Network Adapter
HQ          Headquarters
HR          House of Representatives
HRAO        Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, South Africa
HRAS        Harvard Radio Astronomy Station, Ft. Davis, TX, USA (the same as GRAS)
HRCC        Human Resources Canada Centre
HREF        Hypertext Reference
HRF         Hitachi Raster Format
HS          High School
HSAM        Hierarchical Sequential Access Method
HSCSD       High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (Internet technology)
HSF         Human SpaceFlight
HSI         Handmade Software, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA
HST         Hawaiian Standard Time (UTC - 10h)
HST         Hubble Space Telescope
HT          HalfTime (sport)
HTC         Hydrographic and Topographic Center
HTML        HyperText Markup Language
HTSI        Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc., USA
HTTP        Hypertext Transfer Protocol
H/W         Hardware
HWHM        Half Width at Half Maximum
HWT         Harmonic Wavelet Transform

To the top of the page

I           Infrared
IA          Iowa
IAA         Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS, St.Petersburg, Russia
IAA         International Academy of Astronautics
IAAC        IGS Ionosphere Associate Analysis Center
IAC         Instituto de Astrofisika de Canarias, Spain
IAC         International Astronautical Congress
IACC        International Advanced Correlator Consortium (VLBI)
IADA        Intelligent Assistant for Data Analysis in VLBI (software, DGFI)
IAF         International Astronautical Federation
IAG         International Association of Geodesy
IAGA        International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy
IAGBN       International Absolute Gravity Basestation Network
IAGC        International Association of Geophysical Contractors
IAHS        International Association of Hydrological Sciences
IAI         Independent Administrative Institute (Japan)
IAIN        International Association of Institutes of Navigation
IALA        International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities
IAMAS       International Association of Meteorological and Atmospheric Sciences
IAPG        Institut fuer Astronomische und Physikalische Geodaesie, Germany
IAPSO       International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean
IARAS       Institute of Astronomy RAS, Moscow, Russia
IAS         Institute of Aerospace Science, USA
IASOM       Institute for Advanced Searches in Orbital Mechanics, University of Texas,
Austin, TX, USA IASPEI International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior IAT International Atomic Time (Temps Atomique International) IATA International Air Transport Association IAU International Astronomical Union IAVCEI International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior IB Information Bulletin IB Inverted Barometer (meteorology) ibid. (Lat. ibidem) in the same book, journal, etc. IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia de Estatistica, Brazil IBM International Business Machines Corp., USA IBO Inverted Barometric Ocean IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICB Inner Core Boundary ICBM InterContinental Ballistic Missile ICC Institut Cartografic de Catalunya, Barselona, Spain ICC International Criminal Court ICCD Intensified Charged Coupled Device ICCG Interagency Coordinating Committee for Geodynamics ICCG Interagency Coordinating Committee on Groundwater ICCG International Conference on Computer Graphics ICDP International Continental Scientific Drilling Program ICE Image Correction and Enhancement ICESAT Ice, Cloud, & land Elevation SATellite ICET IAG/ETC International Center for Earth Tides ICF Integrity Control Facility (GalileoSat) ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ICG Inter-Union Commission of Geodynamics ICH I/O Controller Hub ICHA Inter-Union Commission for History of Astronomy ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol ICQ I seek you ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross ICRF International (IERS) Celestial Reference Frame ICRS International (IERS) Celestial Reference System ICSU International Council for Science
(formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions) ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTYC International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ICW Inner Core Wobble ID Idaho ID Identification IDA International Dark-sky Association IDA IRIS/SIO International Deployment of Accelerometers IDDN Integrity Data Dissemination Network (GalileoSat) IDE Integrated Drive Electronics (the same as ATA) IDE Integrated Development Environment IDEAL International Digital Electronic Access Library IDIQ Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity IDL Interactive Data Language IDS International DORIS Service i.e. (Lat. id est) that is to say IE Microsoft Internet Explorer IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IEEC Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IERS International Earth Rotation Service IESAS Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan IESSG Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy, UoN, UK IF Intermediate Frequency IfAG Institut fuer Angewandte Geodasie, Frankfurt, Germany (now BKG) IFC Intel Fortran Compiler IFC Intensive Field Campaign IfEN Institut fuer Erdmessung und Navigation IFF Interchange File Format (Amiga) IFMP NASA Integrated Financial Management Program IFN French Institute of Navigation (Institut Francais de Navigation) IFOV Instantaneous Field-of-View IFREMER Institut Francais de Recherche et d'Exploitation de la MER IFRTP Institut Francais pour la Recherche et la Technologie Polaire IFS Installable File System Manager IGARSS International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Program IGEB Interagency GPS Executive Board IGEX International GLONASS EXperiment IGFN Italian GPS Fiducial Network IGG Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, VUT, Vienna, Austria IGGA Institute of Geodesy and Geodetical Astronomy, WUT, Poland IGGC International Gravity and Geoid Commission IGGOS Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System IGiK Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland IGLOS International GLONASS Service IGM Instituto Geografico Militar, Chile IGM Instituto Geografico Militare, Italy IGN National Geographical Institute (Institut Geographique National), Paris, France IGN National Geographical Institute (Instituto Geografico Nacional), Spain IGNS Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand IGOS Integrated Global Observing Strategy IGOS-P Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership IGP IGS predicted (orbit, ERP) IGPP Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, La Jolla, CA, USA IGR IGS rapid (orbit, ERP) IGRF International Geomagnetic Reference Frame IGS International GPS Service IGSCB IGS Central Bureau IGSO International Geodetic Students Organization IGU International Geographical Union IGY International Geophysical Year IHO International Hydrographic Organization IID Interface Identifier IIN Italian Institute of Navigation (Instituto Italiano di Navigazione) IIS Internet Information Server IISC Indian Institute of Science, Center for Mathematical Modeling
and Computer Simulation, Bangalore, India IISC CGSIC International Information Sub-Committee IISL International Institute of Space Law IL Illinois ILA International Loran Association ILBM InterLeaved BitMap Ill. Illinois ILOM International Latitude Observatory Mizusawa, Japan (now NAOMZ) ILOM In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (SELENE2) ILP International Lithosphere Program ILRS International Laser Ranging Service ILS International Latitude Service IMAGE Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration satellite IMCCE Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides, OPA, France IMF International Monetary Fund IMF Isobaric Mapping Function IMFh Isobaric Mapping Function, hydrostatic component IMFw Isobaric Mapping Function, wet component IMHO Internet Media HOuse Russia IMO International Maritime Organization IMS Information Management System IMS Integrity Monitoring Station (GalileoSat) IMVP Institute of Metrology for Time and Space, Moscow, Russia IN Indiana INASAN Institute of Astronomy RAS, Moscow, Russia Inc. Incorporated Ind. Indiana INDIS Information Dissemination in European RTD INE Spain Institute of Navigation (Instituto de Navegation de Espana) INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Mexico Inf. Information INGEOMINAS National Institute in Geosciences, Mining and Chemistry, Colombia INGM National Institute in Geosciences, Mining and Chemistry, Colombia INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite I-NMF Integrity Network Management Facility (GalileoSat) INPE Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil INQUA International Union for Quaternary Research, University of London, UK INS U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service INS Inertial Navigation System Ins. Inspector INSA Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse, France INSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Insp. Inspector Int. International INT Isaac Newton Telescope INTA National Institute for Aerospace Technology
(Instituto Nacional de Technica Aeroespacial), Spain INTAS International Association for the promotion of cooperation with scientists
from the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union INTEGRAL International Gamma Ray Astrophysical Laboratory (LAEFF, Spain) INTELSAT INTernational TELecommunication SATellite Intern. International Intl. International I/O Input/Output IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO) IOC International Olympic Committee IOM Institute of Medicine, USA ION Institute of Navigation, USA ION-CH Swiss Institute of Navigation IONEX Ionospheric Map Exchange format IOS I/O Supervisor IOTA Infrared Optical Telescope Array IOTA International Occultation Timing Association IOV In-Orbit Validation IP Internet Protocol IPA International Police Academy IPAC NASA Infrared Processing and Analysis Center IPC International Paralympic Committee IPF Integrity Processing Facility (GalileoSat) IPGP Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France IPIE Institute for Precision Instrument Engineering, Moscow, Russia IPMS International Polar Motion Service I-PNNI Integrated Private Network-to-Network Interface IPO Integrated Program Office IPR Instantaneous Pole of Rotation IPRG Institute for Petroleum Research and Geophysics, Israel IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 IPWV Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor IQ Intelligence quotient i.q. (Lat. idem quod) the same as IR Infra-Red IRA Institute of Radio Astronomy (Istituto di Radioastronomia), Bologna, Italy IRA Irish Republican Army IRAC Infrared Array Camera (SIRTF) IRAF Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (software) IRAS IPAC Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRC International Research Council (later ICSU, ICS) IRE Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, India IRFC IGS Reference Frame Coordinator IRI International Reference Ionosphere IRIS Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, USA IRIS International Radio Interferometric Surveying IRIS-A International Radio Interferometric Surveying - Atlantic IRIS-P International Radio Interferometric Surveying - Pacific IRIS-S International Radio Interferometric Surveying - South IRM IERS Reference Meridian IRP IERS Reference Pole IRQ Interrupt Request IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS InfraRed Spectrograph (SIRTF) IRS U.S. Internal Revenue Service IRS International Reference Stars IRSA IPAC Infrared Science Archives IRV Inter-Range Vector ISA Industry Standard Architecture ISAM Indexed Sequential Access Method ISAPI Internet Server API ISAR Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ISAS Institute for Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara, Japan ISBN International Standard Book Number ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISES International Space Environment Service ISGN International Space Geodetic Network ISIR International Space Industry Report ISIT Institute of Systems & Information Technologies, Japan ISIT Intensified SIT ISL Initial System Loader ISLSCP International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project ISM Interstellar Medium ISMB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology ISO IPAC Infrared Space Observatory ISO International Standards Organization ISP Internet Service Provider ISR Institute for Space Research, Austria ISRO Indian Space Research Organization ISRO Institute for Space Research Observatory, Graz, Austria ISS International Space Station ISS InterStellar Scintillation ISSN International Standard Serial Number ISTP International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program ISTRAC ISRO Telemetry tracking and Command Network ISTS Institute of Space and Terrestrial Sciences, Canada ISU International Skating Union ISU International System of Units ISYA International School for Young Astronomers IT Income Tax IT Information Technology ITIS Institute of Information and Technology for Space
(Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale), Matera, Italy ITM International Mobile Telecommunication ITRF International (IERS) Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRS International (IERS) Terrestrial Reference System ITS Incompatible Timesharing System ITS Intelligent Transportation System program, USA ITSA Intelligent Transportation System of America, USA ITSS Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, USA ITT Invitation-to-Tender ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-R International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Bureau IUCAF Inter-Union Commission on the Allocation of Frequencies for radio Astronomy
and Space Science IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics IUHPS International Union for History and Philosophy of Science IULS Integrity Uplink Station (GalileoSat) IUPAP International Union of Pure and Applied Physics IUSM International Union for Surveys and Mapping IVN International VLBI Network IVP Invariant point IVR Interactive Voice Response IVS International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry IVTAN Institute for High Temperature of the Russian Academy of Sciences IWV Integrated amount of Water Vapor (meteorology) IXE IP to X.25 Encapsulation

To the top of the page

J           Julian epoch (astronomy)
J.          Journal
J.          Jupiter
J2ME        Java-2 Micro Edition
JAC         Joint Astronomy Centre, Hawaii
JACARA      Joint Australian Centre for Astrophysical Research in Antartica
JACH        Joint Astronomy Centre Hilo, HI, USA
JADE        Japanese Dynamic Earth observation by VLBI
JAL         Japan AirLines
JAMSTEC     Japan Marine Science and Technology Center
Jan         January
JAnet       Joint Academic Network, UK
JARE        Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition
JAS         Japan Air System
JBO         Jodrell Bank Observatory, UK
JCET        NASA/GSFC Joint Center for Earth System Technology
JCL         Job Control Language
JCMT        James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Mauna Kea, HI, USA
JCR         BIPM/IAU Join Committee on Relativity
JD          Joint Discussion
JD          Julian Date
JDK         Java Development Kits
JEA         Environmental Agency of Japan
JEG         Jananeese Experiments for Geodesy
JENAM       Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting
JERS        Japanese Earth Resources Satellite
JGD         Japan Geodetic Datum
JGM         Joint Gravity Model
JGR         Journal of Geophysical Research
JHD         Japan Hydrographic Department
JIF         Joint Infrastructure Fund, UK
JILA        Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, USA
JIN         Japan Institute of Navigation
JIPE        Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russia
JISTEC      Japan International Science and Technology Exchange Center
JIT         Just-In-Time (computing)
JIVE        Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, the Netherlands
JKT         Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, La Palma, Spain
JMA         Japan Meteorological Agency
JMU         Liverpool John Moores University, UK
JNET        Japanese Domestic Astronomical VLBI Network
JHU APL     John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, USA
JOTA        Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications
Jour.       Journal
JPEG        Joint Photographic Experts Group's graphics file format
JPG         Joint Photographic Experts Group's graphics file format
JPL         Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA
JPO         Joint Program Office (GPS)
JPP         NASA/JPL predicted (orbit)
JPS         Javad Positioning Systems
Jr.         Junior
JRTF        NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Mauna Kea, HI, USA
JSC         NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
JSC         Joint Scientific Committee
JSC         Joint Stock Company
JSP         Joint Seismic Program, USA
JST         Japan Standard Time (UTC + 9h)
JTK         Java Tool Kit
JTRA        Jodrell Bank Training Site for Radio Astronomy
Jul         July
Jun         June
JUnet       Japanese University Network
JVAS        Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey
Jy          Jansky

To the top of the page

K           Kelvin
K           Kilobyte
K           King (chess)
KACST       King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Kans.       Kansas
KAO         Korea Astronomy Observatory, Taejon, Korea
KAO         NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory
KAO         Kunming Astronomical Observatory CAS, China
KAPIS       Kluwer Academic Publishers Information Service
Kb          Kilobit
KB          Kilobyte
KBD         Keyboard
KBO         Kuiper Belt Object
Kbps        Kilobits per second
KBps        Kilobytes per second
KBS         Knowledge-Based System (VLBI sowtware, DGFI)
K.C.        King's Counsel (UK)
Ken.        Kentucky
KGB         USSR Committee of State Security (Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti)
KGN         Korea GPS Network
KGRS        Kinematically nonrotating Geocentric Reference System
KIN         Korean Institute of Navigation
KISS        Keep It Simple, Stupid (principle)
KKK         Ku Klux Klan
kmph        kilometers per hour
KMS         National Survey and Cadastre (Kort & Matriklstyrelsen), Denmark
kn.         knot (nautical)
KOOLAS      Kootwijk Laser Station, the Netherlands
KPGO        Kokee Park Geophysical Observatory, HI, USA
KPNO        Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ, USA
KS          Kansas
KSAM        Keyed Sequential Access Method
KSC         NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA
KSP         Keystone Project, Japan
KSRC        CRL Kashima Space Research Center, Kashima, Japan
kt.         knot (nautical)
KVN         Korean VLBI Network
KY          Kentucky

To the top of the page

L           Large
L           Losses (sport)
LA          Long Arc
LA          Louisiana
LA          Los Angeles
LAAS        Local Area Augmentation System (GPS)
Lab         Laboratory
LAC         Local Advisory Committee
LAC         Local Analysis Center (IGS/EPN)
LAEFF       Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics, Spain
LAGEOS      LAser GEOdynamics Satellite
LAGOS       Laser Gravitational-wave Observatory in Space
LAMOST      Large sky Area Multi-Objects fiber Spectrum Telescope project (China)
LAN         Local Area Network
LANE        LAN Emulator
LANL        Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
LAP         Link Access Procedure (X.25 level 2 protocol)
LAPB        Link Access Procedure_Balanced (X.25 level 2 protocol)
LARC        Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
LAREG       IGN LAboratoire de REcherches en Geodesie, Paris, France
LASER       Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LASSO       Laser Synchronization from Stationary Orbit
Lat.        Latin
Lat.        Latitude
lb.         (Lat. libra) pound
LBA         Long Baseline Array, Australia
LCD         Liquid-Crystal Diode
LCD         Liquid-Crystal Display
LCP         Left Circular Polarization
Ld.         Limited (company)
LDC         Local Data Center (IGS/EPN)
LDEO        Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY, USA
LDM         Local Data Manager
LED         Laser Earth Dynamics experiment
LED         Light Emitting Diode
LEGRI       Low Energy Gamma Ray Imager (LAEFF, Spain)
LEO         Low Earth Orbit
LEO         Low-Earth Orbiter
LeRC        NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA
Lett.       Letters
LF          Line Feed
LF          Low Frequency
LFU         Least Frequency Used
LFVN        Low Frequency VLBI Network
LGDO        Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY, USA
LGM         Last Glacial Maximum
LGN         Local Geodetic Network
LHCP        Left-Hand Circular Polarization
LIDAR       Light Detection and Ranging
LIFO        Last-In, First-Out
LINEAR      Lincoln Laboratory Near-Earth Asteroid Research (MIT)
LINZ        Land Information of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand
LIS         Land Information System
LISP        LISt Processing
LJ          LaserJet printer
LLC         Logical Link Control (X.25 level 2 protocol)
LLR         Lunar Laser Ranging
LMSA        Large Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Array, Japan
LN          Local Network
LNA         Low Noise Amplifier
LNAAC       Local Network Associate Analysis Center
LO          Local Oscillator
LOC         Local Organizing Committee
LOD         Length of Day
LODR        Length of Day Regularized
LOI         Letter of Intent
Lon.        Longitude
Long.       Longitude
LONEOS      Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Object Search
LORAN       LOng RAnge Navigation
LP          Lunar Prospector mission (Japan)
LPAC        Astronomical Council of USSR
LPI         Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia
lpi         lines per inch
LPSC        Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
LPT         Line Printer
LPT         Federal Office of Topography (Bundesamt fuer Landestopographie),
Wabern, Switzerland (the same as BfL, FOT, L+T) LR Laser Ranging LR Laser Reflector LRA Laser Retroreflector Array LRDS Low-Resolution DRAO Survey of HI Emission from the Galactic Plane (DRAO) LRE Laser Ranging Equipment LRRA Lunar RetroReflector Array LS Least Squares LSB Lower SideBand LSC Least Square Collocation LSI Large Scale Integration (electronics) LSIR Least Square Instantaneous Resolution filter LST Local Sidereal Time Lt. Lieutenant LT Local Time L+T Federal Office of Topography (Bundesamt fuer Landestopographie),
Switzerland (the same as BfL, FOT, LPT) Ltd. Limited (company) LTP NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics LTO Linear Tape-Open LURE LUnar Ranging Experiment LV Launch Vehicle LVDS Low-Voltage Differential Signal LZ Lempel-Ziv coding (programming)

To the top of the page

M           Mach number (speed ratio to speed of sound)
M           Male
M.          Mars
M.          Master (Magister)
M           Megabyte
M           Midfield (sport)
MA          Massachusetts
MA          (Lat. Magister Artium) Master of Arts
MAA         Mathematical Association of America, USA
Mac         Macintosh
MAC         Master Astrometic Catalog
MAC         Merdian Axial Circle, Kiev, Ukraine
MACLAS      McDonald Laser Station
MAG         Millimetre Astronomy Group (HIA)
Maj.        Major
MAO         Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Kiev, Ukraine MAP Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite MAPI Messaging API Mar March mas milliarcseconds MAS MODIS Airborne Simulator (modified Daedalus multispectral scanner) MASER Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Mass. Massachusetts MASTER MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (multispectral imaging scanner) Math. Mathematical Math. Mathematics MATLAS Matera Laser Station, Italy MAU Media Attachment Unit Mb Megabit MB Megabyte MB Motherboard (computing) MBA Master of Business Administration MBC Middle-east Broadcasting Center MBCS Multi-Byte Character Set MBD MultiBand Delay (VLBI) Mbps Megabits per second MBps Megabytes per second MCA Micro Channel Architecture MCC Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp., Austin, TX, USA MCC Mission Control Center, Korolyov, Russia MCDA Microsoft Certified Database Administrator MCEP Mean Celestial Ephemeris Pole MCH Memory Controller Hub MCI Media Control Interface MCP MicroChannel Plate MCP Microsoft Certified Professional MCS GPS Master Control Station MCSA Microsoft Certified System Administrator MCSD Microsoft Certified Solution Developer MCSE Microsoft Certified System Engineer MCT Microsoft Certified Trainer MCV Magnetic Cataclysmic Variable (astronomy) M.D. Medicine Doctor MD Make Directory MD Maryland MDCE Maritime Development Center of Europe MDI McDonnell Douglas, Inc., USA MDSCC NASA Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, Spain MDT Mountain Daylight Time (UTC - 6h) ME Maine Me. Mercury ME Multi Edit (text editor) Mech. Mechanics MEDLAS Mediterranean Laser Campaign MEDOC Motion of the Earth by Doppler Observing Campaign MEIPS Mind Enterprise IP System MEM Maximum Entropy Method MEO Medium Earth Orbit (Middle Earth Orbit) MEOLUT MEO Local User Terminal (GalileoSat) MER NASA Mars Exploration Rover mission. MERIS MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIT Monitoring of Earth Rotation and Inter-comparison of Techniques MERLIN JBO Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network, UK MET Middle-European Time (UTC + 1h) MET Mission Elapsed Time METDST Middle-European Daylight Time (UTC + 2h) Meteor. Meteorology Meteorol. Meteorology MF MainFrame MF Medium Frequency MF MidField (sport) MFC Microsoft Foundation Classes MFEnet Magnetic Fusion Energy Network MGGF Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids MGS Mars Global Surveyor mission (USA) Mgr Manager MHPCC Maui High Performance Computing Center MI Michigan MICA USNO Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac Mich. Michigan MIDAS Munich Image Data Analysis System MIDEX NASA Medium-Class Explorer program. MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface MILnet Defense data network MINQE Minimum Invariant Quadratic Estimate Minn. Minnesota MIPAS Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding MIPS Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF Miss. Mississippi MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA MITES Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Survey MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan MITNRC MIT Near Real Time Correlator MJD Modified Julian Date mk mark ML Mobile Laser system ML Maximum Likelihood MLA Messenger Laser Altimeter MLM Maximum Likelihood Method MLRO Matera Laser Ranging Observatory, Italy MLRS McDonald Laser Ranging System, Ft. Davis, TX, USA MM Mesoscale Model (meteorology) MM MultiMedia MMF MIT Mapping Function MMIC Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit MMS Multimedia Messages Service MMT Multiply Mirror Telescope MN Minnesota MNRAS Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (journal) MNRF Major National Research Facilities program, Australia MO Magneto-Optics MO Manila Observatory, Philippines MO Medical Officer MO Missouri m.o modus operandi m/o money order MO money order MOA Mount Observer Automation MOBLAS NASA MOBile LAser ranging System MOC Microsoft Official Curriculum MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOLA Mars Orbiter Lander Altimeter (MGS mission) MOM Mobile Optical Mount Mon Monday Mon. Monthly Mont. Montana MOS Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor MOSAIC MObile System for Accurate ICBM Control (radionavigation system), USA MOST Korea Ministry Of Science and Technology MOTS Mostly Off The Shelf MOU Memorandum of Understanding MOUS Microsoft Office User Specialist MNS Metal-Nitride-Semiconductor MP Member of Parliament MP Military Police MPI Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany MPIfR Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn, Germany MPC IAU Minor Planet Center MPC Minor Planet Circular MPCAC IAU Minor Planet Center Advisory Committee MPEC Minor Planet Electronic Circular MPEG Motion Picture Expert Group mph miles per hour MPS Minor Planet Circular Supplement Mr. Mister MRI Meteorological Research Institute, Japan MRAO Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Lord's Bridge, Cambridge, UK MRF Medium-range Forecast (meteorology) Mrs. Mistress M.S. Master (Magister) of Science Ms Megasamples MS Microsoft MS MicroStar International Ms. Miss + Mistress MS Mississippi M.S. Morning Star (newspaper) MSA Mineralogical Society of America MSD Moscow Daylight Time (UTC + 4h) MSDE Microsoft Database Engine MSDN Microsoft Developers Network MSOI Modified Southern Oscillation Index (meteorology) MSF Microsoft Solutions Framework MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA MSG Meteosat Second Generation MSI Microsoft Installer MSK Moscow Time (UTC + 3h) MSL Mean Sea Level MSN MicroSoft Network MSO Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory, Canberra, NSW, Australia MSODP Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Program (CSR software) MSP MicroSoft Paint (graphic file format) MSS Mobile Satellite Services MSSSO Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory, Canberra, NSW, Australia MST U.S. Mountain Standard Time (UTC - 7h) MSTI Miniature Seeker Technology Integration MSU Moscow State University, Russia MSX IPAC Midcourse Space Experimen MT Montana Mt. Mount (Mountain) MTBF Mean Time Between Failures MTF Modulation Transfer Function MTLRS Modular Transportable Laser Ranging System (IfAG, TUD) MTP Masters Training Package MTP Microwave Temperature Profiler MTPE Mission to Planet Earth, USA MV Mobile VLBI system MVL Multi-media Virtual Laboratory MVP Most Valuable Player MW MicroWave MWG ILRS Mission Working Group MWO Maunt Wilson Observatory, USA MWR MicroWave Radiometer

To the top of the page

N           Knight (chess)
N.          Neptune
N           North
n.          Noun
N/A         Not Applicable
N/A         Not Assigned
N/A         Not Available
NAC         UWS Nepean Astronomy Centre, Australia
NAD         North American Datum
NAE         National Academy of Engineering (USA)
NAFF        Numerical Analysis of Fundamental Frequencies
NAFTA       North American Free-Trade Agreement
NAG         Naval Astronautics Group, Point Mugu, CA, USA
NAG         Numerical Algorithms Group
NAGU        Notice Advisory to GLONASS Users
NAIS        NASA Acquisition Internet Service
NAL         National Aerospace Laboratory, Japan
NANU        Notice Advisory to NAVSTAR Users
NAO         National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, China
NAO         National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo, Japan
NAO         National Astronomical Observatory, Spain
NAO         Nautical Almanac Office
NAOCO       NAO New Advanced One unit COrrelator, Japan
NAOJ        National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo, Japan
NAOMZ       National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Branch, Japan (former ILOM)
NAS         National Academy of Sciences, USA
NAS         Newcastle Astronomical Society, Australia
NASA        U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASCAR      National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing
NASCOM      NASA COMmunications Network
NASDA       NAtional Space Development Agency, Japan
NASM        National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC, USA
NATO        North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAV         Norton AntiVirus
NAVCEN      USCG Navigation Center
NAVEX       NAVNET Experiment
NAVNET      U.S. Navy VLBI Network
NAVSTAR     NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (Navigation System Timing and Ranging,
Navigation System with Time and Ranging) NB (Lat. nota bene) take notice NB New Brunswick (Canadian province) NBA National Basketball Association, USA NBA National Boxing Association, USA NBC National Broadcasting Company, USA NBMG Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, NV, USA NBS National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO, USA NBSM National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, China NC North Carolina NC Norton Commander NCA National Committee for Astronomy, Australia NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association, USA NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA NCBB Networking and Communications Building Blocks NCC National Cartographic Center, Iran NCC GFZ Network Control Center, Potsdam, Germany NCDC National Climatic Data Center, USA NCEDC Northern California Earthquake Data Center, CA, USA NCEP U.S. National Center for Environmental Prediction, formerly NMC NCL University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK NCMN NGS National Crustal Motion Network, USA NCPS VA National Center for Patient Safety, USA NCRA National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, India NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications, UIUC, IL, USA ND Near Diurnal ND North Dakota N.Dak. North Dakota NDBC NOAA National Data Buoy Center NDGPS Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System, USA NDGW Near Diurnal Free Wobble NDIS Network Driver (Device) Interface Specification NE Nebraska NE ILRS Networks and Engineering working group NE Northeast NEA Near Earth Asteroid(s) NEAP Near Earth Asteroid Prospector NEAR Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous NEAT Near Earth Asteroid Tracking (JPL) Nebr. Nebraska NEC Nippon Electric Company, Japan NED NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database NEDA RUSEG Northern Eurasia Deformation Array NEIDS Non-European Integrity Determination System (GalileoSat) NELS Northwest European Loran-C System NEO Near Earth Objects NEO Near Earth Orbit NEON National Ecological Observatory Network, USA NEON Network of European Observatories in the North NEOS U.S. National Earth Orientation Service NEP Noise Equivalent Power NEQ Normal EQuation NERC Natural Environment Research Council, UK NEROC North-East Radio Observatory Corporation, USA NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data Information Service, USA NESTA National Earth Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC, USA Nev. Nevada NEWG ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group NFK Neue FundamentalKatalog NFRA the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy NFS Network File System (Internet) NFS Networked File System (UNIX file system) NFSS New Font Selection Scheme (LaTeX) NGC New General Catalog NGI National Geography Institute, South Korea NGI Next Generation Internet NGO Non-Government Organization NGRI National Geographical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India NGRS National Geodetic Reference System NGS U.S. National Geodetic Survey NGST Next Generation Space Telescope NGVD National Geodetic Vertical Datum NH New Hampshire NHL National Hockey League, USA NIAC NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, USA NIB Non-Inverted Barometer (meteorology) NIBO Non-Inverted Barometric Ocean NIC NASA/GSFC Network Information Center NICMOS Near Infrared camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HST) NIES National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan NIMA U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency NIN Netherlands Institute of Navigation (Nederlands Instituut voor Navigatie) NIPR National Institute of Polar Research, Japan NIPRNET Non-Classified IP Router Network NIRS Northern International Reference Stars NIS New Independent States (of FSU) NISN NASA Integrated Services Network NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology, USA NJ New Jersey NKG Nordic Geodetic Commission NLES Navigation Local EGNOS Station NLH Agricultural University of Norway NLLS Non-Linear Least Squares NLRS Natmap Laser Ranging System, Orroral, Australia NLS National Land Survey of Sweden NLT Not Later Than NM New Mexico NMA Nobeyama Millimeter Array, Japan NMA Norwegian Mapping Authority NMC U.S.National Meteorological Center, now NCEP NMEA National Marine Electronics Association N.Mex. New Mexico NMF Niell Mapping Function NMFh Niell Mapping Function, hydrostatic component NMFw Niell Mapping Function, wet component NMI Nobeyama Millimeter Interferometer, Japan NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMS NetWare Management System (Novell) NMS NGST Mission Stimulator NNE North-Northeast NNF Nordic Institute of Navigation (Nordisk Navigasjonsforum) NNI Network-to-Network Interface NNSS U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System (TRANSIT) NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol (Internet) NNW North-Northwest No. Number NOAA U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAO National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ, USA NOC National Olympic Committee NOC National Organizing Committee NOGAPS U.S. Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction Center NOI Notice of Intent NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command, USA NOS National Ocean Survey Not. Noties Nov November NOVAS Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Subroutines NP Network Provider NP Normal Point NPACI National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure, USA NPL National Physical Laboratory, India NPM Northern Proper Motion program (Lick observatory) NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System, USA NPOI Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (USNO) NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project spacecraft. NPTC Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, USA NR Numerical Recipes (software) NRA NASA Research Announcement NRAL Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories, UK NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA, USA NRC National Research Council, Canada NRC National Research Council, USA NRCan Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, formerly EMR NRF National Research Foundation, South Africa NRIAG National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt NRL Naval Research Laboratory, USA NRO Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Japan NRO Non-Rotating Origin NRSM Nobeyama Radio Seeing Monitor, Japan NRT Near Real Time NS North-South NSA U.S. National Security Agency NSAS Northern Sydney Astronomical Society, Australia NSCC Navigation System Control Center (GalileoSat) NSD National Space Development Agency, Japan NSDC IAU/BDL Natural Satellites Data Center NSDB NSDC Natural Satellites Data Base NSF National Science Foundation, USA NSF National Science Fund, Bulgaria NSFnet NSF Network NSI NASA (Network) Science Internet NSI National Statistical Institute, Bulgaria NSIC National Storage Industry Consortium, USA NSI-DECnet NSI DECnet Protocol NSI-TCP/IP NSI TCP/IP Protocol NSIPP NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project NSN NASA Science Network NSP Navigation Signal Processor (GalileoSat) NSRS National Spatial Reference System, USA NSSA National Space Society of Australia NSSDC NASA/GSFC National Space Science Data Center NSSTC National Space Science and Technology Center, Huntsville, AL, USA NSW New South Wales, Australia NSWC U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center NT Network Termination NTC National Textbook Company, USA NTF National Tidal Facility, Australia NTFS New Technology File System NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration, USA NTN National Test Network, Canada (communication network) NTP Network Time Protocol NTS Navigation Technology Satellite, USA NTSB National Transportation Safety Board, USA NTSC U.S. National Television Standard Committee NTT New Technology Telescope, Chile NTT Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokio, Japan NTT Com NTT Communications Corp., Japan NTU Nanyang Technical University, Singapore NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Greece Numer. Numerical NUVEL Northwestern University Velocity Model NUVEL-NNR Northwestern University Velocity Model, No Net Rotation NV Nevada NVO National Virtual Observatory, USA NVP National Vacation Promotions, USA NVSS VLA Sky Survey (NRAO) NW Northwest NWP Numerical Weather Prediction NWRA NorthWest Research Associates, Inc., USA NWS U.S. National Weather Service NY New York NYC New York City NZ New Zealand

To the top of the page

O.          Ohio
OA          Optical Astrometry
OAB         Bologna Astronomical Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna), Italy
OACT        Observatorio Astronomico di Collurania - Teramo, Teramo, Italy
OAM         Ocean Angular Momentum
OAN         National Astronomical Observatory (Observatorio Astronomico Nacional), Spain
OAO         Orbiting Astronomical Observatory
OAR         NOAA Office of Atmospheric Research
OAS         Organization of American States
OASIS       Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software
O.B.E.      Order of the British Empire
O-C         Observed minus Computed
Obs.        Observatory
OCA         Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France
OCR         Optical Character Reader (Recognition)
OCS         Operational Control System
Oct         October
o.d.        on demand
ODBC        Open Database Connectivity
ODC         IGS Operational Data Center
ODI         Open Datalink Interface
OEM         Original Equipment Manufacturer
OES         NASA Office of Earth Science
OGCM        Ocean Global Circulation Model
OH          Ohio
OHP         Ocean Hemisphere Project, Japan
OK          Oklahoma
Okla.       Oklahoma
OL          Ocean Loading
OLE         Object Linking and Embedding
OLG         Observatory Lustbuehel Graz, Austria
OLIVE       Optically LInked VLBI Experiment
OLR         Outgoing Longwave Radiation (meteorology)
OMC         Observed Minus Computed
ONP         On-site Normal Point
ONR         Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA, USA
OO          Object-Oriented (programming)
OOA         Object-Oriented Analysis (programming)
OOD         Object-Oriented Design (programming)
OOPC        Ocean Observations Panel for Climate
OPA         Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris), France
OPAR        Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris), France
OPC         IVS Observing Program Committee
OPC         OLE for Process Control (protocol)
OPD         Observatorio do Pico dos Dias, Brazil
OPEC        Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPI         Option Programming Interface
OPM         U. S. Office of Personnel Management
Opt.        Optics
OPUS        NGS/NOAA Online Positioning User Service, USA
OR          Oregon
ORD         GPS Operational Requirements Document
Ore.        Oregon
OREGIN      Organization of European GNSS equipment and service Industries
ORI         Ocean Research Institute, Tokio University, Japan
ORNL        Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA
ORRLAS      Orroral Laser Station, Australia
ORT         Ooty Radio Telescope, India
ORT         Optical Ranging Telescope
OS          Operating System
OSC         Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA
OSF         Open Software Foundation
OSGB        Ordinance Survey of Great Britain
OSI         Open Systems Interconnection
OSM         On-Screen Manager
OSO         Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
OSPF        Orbitography and Synchronization Processing Facility (GalileoSat)
OSRT        Ooty Synthesis Radio telescope, India
OSS         Orbitography and Synchronization Station (GalileoSat)
OST         U.S. Office of the Secretary of Transportation
OSTA        Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications
OSTC        Federal office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs, Belgium
OT          Overtime (sport)
OTAGO       University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
OtF         On-the-Fly
OTF         Optical Transfer Function
OTTER       NASA Oregon, Transect Ecosystem Research Project
OUAT        Olsztyn Univercity of Agriculture and Technology, Poland
OVLBI       Orbiting VLBI, Green Bank, WV, USA
OVN         Austrian Institute of Navigation (Osterreichischer Verein fur Navigation)
OVRO        Owens Valley Radio Observatory, CA, USA

To the top of the page

p.          page
P           Pawn (chess)
P           Penalty (sport)
P           Pluto
P3P         Platform for Privacy Preference
PA          Pennsylvania
p.a.        (Lat. per annum) per year
PA          Photoelectric Astrolabe
PA          Points Against (sport)
PAA         Phase Array Antenna
PAD         Packet Assembler-Disassembler
PAFB        Patrick Air Force Base, USA
PAGEOS      PAssive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite
PAK         Product Authorization Key
PAL         Phase Alternation Line (TV)
PAN         Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk)
PANGA       Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array, USA
PARSEC      Programmable Automatic Radial-Scanner Coordinatometer
PAS         Polish Academy of Sciences
PASA        Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
PASP        Publications of the ASP
PASSCAL     Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere, USA
PBMR        Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer
pc          parsec
PC          IERS Product Center
PC          Personal Computer
PC          Physical Contact (connector)
PC          Program Committee
PCal        Phase Calibration (VLBI)
PCCIP       President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, USA
PCE         Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (journal)
PCFS        PC Field System (VLBI)
PCGIAP      UN Permanent Committee for Geographic Information systems
Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect PCL HP Printer Command Language PCM Pulse-Code-Modulated PCS Portable Calibration Standard (SLR) pct. percent PCU Power Control Unit PCV Phase Center Variation PCX PC Paintbrush PD Photodiode PD Police Department PDA Personal Digital Assistant (hand-held computer) PDC Primary Domain Controller PDF Portable Document Format PDL Perl Data Language PDL Program Design Language PDOP Position Dilution of Precision (GPS) PDP Programable Data Processor PDS Planetary Data System PDT U.S. Pacific Daylight Time (UTC - 7h) PECASE Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers (USA) PEKA Tide gauges and Caucasus (PEgel and KAukasus) Penn. Pennsylvania Penna. Pennsylvania PEP Planetary Ephemeris Program PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique PF Points For (sport) PFCN Prograde Free Core Nutation PG Program Group PGA Professional Golfers' Association PGA Professional Graphics Adapter PGC NRCan Pacific Geoscience Centre, Canada PGC Preliminary General Catalog PGF Pacific GPS Facility, Hawaii PGF Peter Gruber Foundation PGGA Permanent GPS Geodetic Array, Southern California, CA, USA pH potential of hydrogen PHA Potentially Hazardous Asteroids Ph.D. (Lat. Philosophiae Doctor) Doctor of Philosophy Phil. Philosophy Phys. Physical Phys. Physics PI Principal Investigator PIF Program Information File PIVEX Platform Independent VLBI Exchange format PKI Public Key Infrastructure (cryptography) pkwy Parkway pky Parkway PL Phillips Laboratory, USA Pl. Place pl. Plurar PL/1 Programming Language 1 PLA Programmable Logic Array PLDS Pilot Land Data System PLM Payload Module PL/M Programming Language for Microprocessors PLO Palestine Liberation Organization PLP Packet Layer Protocol (X.25 level 3 protocol) PM Phase Modulation PM Polar Motion p.m. (Lat. post meridiem) after noon PM Prime Minister PMC Photoelectric Meridian Circle PMFS Proper Motions of Fundamental Stars catalog PMN Parkes-MIT-NRAO (catalog) PMO Purple Mountain Observatory, China PMT Photo Multiplier Tube PMT Pulkovo Meridian Telescope PM-X X-coordinate of Polar Motion PM-Y Y-coordinate of Polar Motion PN Planetary Nebulae PN Post-Newtonian PN Pseudo Noise PNA Post-Newtonian Approximation PNG Portable Network Graphics PNNI Private Network-to-Network Interface PnP Plug and Play P.O. Post Office p.o.d. pay on delivery POD Precise Orbit Determination POE Precise Orbit Ephemerides POES NOAA Polar-Orbiting Environmental System POINTS Precision Optical INTerferometer in Space POL Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK POLAC Paris Observatory Lunar Analysis Center POLARIS POLar motion Analysis by Radio Interferometric Surveying POP3 Post Office Protocol (Internet) POS Portable Operating System POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX pp. pages PP Pilot Project PP Power Play (ice hockey) ppb parts-per-billion, 10^-9 PPGN Primary Precise Geodetic Network, Japan ppm parts-per-million, 10^-6 PPM Positions and Proper Motions catalog PPME Pacific Plate Motion Experiment PPN Post-Post-Newtonian PPN Parametrized Post-Newtonian PPOSS Physical Parameters of Solar System Objects PPP Point-to-Point Protocol PPP Public Private Partnership PPS. (Lat. Post postscriptum) additional postscript PPS Precise Positioning Service pps pulse per second ppt parts-per-thousand, 10^-3 PR Public Relations PRAMM Planning Research Analysis Marketing and Management Firm, USA PRAO ASC Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Russia PPARC Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, UK PRARE Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment PRC People's Republic of China PREM Preliminary Reference Earth Model PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency PRI Primary Rate Interface PRL Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India PRN Pseudo Random Noise PRN Pseudo Random Number PRO Parkes Radio Observatory, Australia Proc. Proceedings PROM Programmable Read-Only Memory PRR Print Request Router Prof. Professor PS PostScript (file format) PS. (Lat. Postscriptum) postscript PS Power Supply Ps. Psalm PSC IRAS Point Source Catalog PSD Power Spectral Density PSI Packetnet Systems Interface PSLR Portable Satellite Laser Ranging System, Latvia PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level PSN Piano Spazial Nazionale, Italy PSO Penalty Shoot-out (sport) PSP Poisson Series Processor software (IAA) PSR Pulsar PSRS Patient Safety Reporting System, USA PST U.S. Pacific Standard Time (UTC - 8h) PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network PT Playback Terminal PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschgweig, Germany PTC Positive Train Control program, USA PTI Parkes-Tidbinbilla real-time Interferometer, Australia PTI Photoelectric Transit Instrument Pts Points (sport) PTS Precision Timing Station (GalileoSat) PTTI Precise Time and Time Interval Publ. Publication(s) PURL Persistent Uniform Resource Locator PVC PolyVinyl Chloride PWR Power PWS Personal Web Server PWV Precipitable Water Vapor PZT Photographic Zenith Tube

To the top of the page

Q           Queen (chess)
Q.          Question
Q&A         Questions and Answers
QASP        Quality Assurance Program (EVN/JIVE)
QBO         Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (meteorology)
QBSA        Quarterly Bulletin of Solar Activity
QC          Quality Control (Quality Check)
QE          Quantum Efficiency
QEM         Quality Education for Minorities program (USA)
QEMM        Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager
QG          Quasi-Geostrophic
QIF         Quasi Ionosphere Free
QISAM       Queued Indexed Sequential Access Method
QL          Quick-Look
QLDAC       DUT Quick-Look Data Analysis Center
QMCP        Quadrant MicroChannel Plate
QoS         Quality of Service
QSAM        Queued Sequential Access Method
QSO         QuasiStellar Object (quasar)
QUASAR      QUantitative Analysis and Series Adjustment in Radioastrometry

To the top of the page

R           Reaumur
R           Red
R.          Republican (a member of the Republic Party)
R           Rook (chess)
R.          Royal
RA          Radar Altimeter
RA          Right Ascension
RADAR       Radio Detection and Ranging
RAID        Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk
RAIM        Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RAL         Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
RAM         Random Access Memory
RAO         Radio Astronomy Observatory
RARP        Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (Internet)
RARR        Range And RangeRate
RAS         Remote Access Services
RAS         Royal Astronomical Society, UK
RAS         Russian Academy of Sciences
RASCAL      RASter Scanning Airborne Lidar
RASNZ       Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand
R/C         Replacement Civil (GPS code)
RCFC&WCD    Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, USA
RCMA        IAU WG on Relativity for Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry
RCMAM       IAU WG on Relativity for Celestial Mechanics and Metrology
RCP         Right Circular Polarization
R&D         Research and Development
Rd.         Road
RDAAC       Regional GPS Data Acquisition and Analysis Center on northern Eurasia, Moscow
RDAN        Roosbeek Dehant Analytical Nutation
RDBMS       Relational Data Base Management System
RDC         Regional Data Center
RDF         Resource Description Language
RDNN        Roosbeek Dehant Numerical Nutation
RDO         Remote Data Objects
RDS         Remote Data Service
REGAL       Regional GPS Network Across Western Alps
Rem.        Remote
REN         REName
Rep.        Republican (a member of the Republic Party)
Reqd.       Required
Res.        Research
resp.       respectively
RESURS      Earth Remote Sensing Satellite
Rev.        Review
RF          Radio Frequency
RFBR        Russian Foundation for Basic Research
RFC         Request for Comments (Internet)
RFCN        Retrograde Free Core Nutation
RFI         Radio Frequency Interference
RFS         Remote File Sharing (UNIX file system)
RFWG        IGS Reference Frame Working Group
RGNA        Red Geodesica Nacional Activa, Mexico
RGO         Royal Greenwich Observatory, UK
RGOLAS      RGO Laser System, Herstmonso, UK
RHCP        Right-Hand Circular Polarization
RHESSI      NASA Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager spacecraft
(former HESSI) RHS Right Hand Side RI Rhode Island RICE Regional Information CEnter RIG Research Institute of Geodesy, Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Ondrejov,
Czech Republic RIGTC Research Institute of Geodesy, Topography, and Cartography RIM Regional Ionosphere Map (Model) RIMS Ranging and Integrity Monitoring Stations (EGNOS) RIN Royal Institute of Navigation, UK RINEX Receiver INdependent EXchange format RIP Routing Information Protocol RIS Retroreflector in Space RISC Reduced Instruction-Set Computer RISDE Russian Institute of Space Device Engineering RISE Radio Interferometry for SElenodesy project (Japan) RITSS Raytheon Information Technology and Scientific Services, USA RJGC Royal Jordanian Geographic Centre, Jordan RLE Run Length Encoding (graphic file format) RLV Reusable Launch Vehicle RM Reference Monument RME Relay Mirror Experiment RMS Root Mean Square RMT Reference Monument RNA Remote Network Access RNAAC IGS Regional Network Associate Analysis Center ROA Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain ROB Royal Observatory of Belgium (Observatoire Royal de Belgium), Brussel, Belgium ROE Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK ROEN Radio-Observatorio Espacial do Nordeste, Brazil ROM Read-Only Memory RORF Radio Optical Reference Frame ROT Requested Observe Time (VSI) RPC Remote Procedure Call (Internet) RPG Report Program Generator (programming language) RPIN Russian Public Institute of Navigation rpm revolutions per minute rps revolutions per second RQE Responsive Quantum Efficiency RRA RetroReflector Array RRFID USNO Radio Reference Frame Image Database RRL Radio Research Laboratories, Japan (now CRL) RS Radio Source RS Reference System RSA Russian Space Agency RSAT Relay Satellite Transponder (SELENE) RSC Radio Source Coordinates RSE Reference System Effect RSMAS Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science RSSA Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, MSSSO, Australia RSU Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria RSVP Resource ReserVation Protocol RSX Resource Sharing Executive (operating system) RT Real Time RT Recording Terminal RT MRAO Ryle Telescope RTAI Real Time Application Interface RTC Real Time Clock RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, USA RTD Research and Technological Development RTK Real Time Kinematics (GPS) RTL HP Raster Transfer Language RTN Research Training Network (European Commission) RTW RadioTelescope Wettzell RTWG IGS Real Time Working Group RUSEG Russia/US Experiment on Geodynamics by GPS Technology RX Receiver

To the top of the page

S.          Saturn
S           South
SA          Selective Availability (GPS)
sa          semiannual
SAAO        South African Astronomical Observatory
SAC         Astronomical Station of Cagliari (Stazione Astronomica di Cagliari, Italy
SAC         Service Access Controller (UNIX)
SAC-C       Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C
SAF         Service Access Facility (UNIX)
SAFE        San Andreas Fault Experiment
SAFRD       South African Foundation for Research Development
SAGE        Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
SAI         Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia
SALRO       Saudi Arabian Laser Ranging Observatory, Riyahd, Saudi Arabia
SAM         Sequential Access Method
SAMBA       SAtellite to Measure Background Anisotropies
SANSAT      Stllenbosh UNiversity SATellite
SAO         Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, China
SAO         Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA, USA
SAO         Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS, N. Arkhys, Russia
SAR         Search And Rescue
SAR         Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAS         Safety Access Service (GalileoSat)
SAS         Scandinavian Airlines System
Sat         Saturday
SATA        Serial-ATA
S.B.        (Lat. Scientiae Baccalaureus) Bachelor of Science
SB          Sound Blaster
SB          Special Bureau
SB          SubBureau
SBA         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Atmosphere
SBAAM       IERS SubBureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum
SBC         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Core
SBCS        Single-Byte Character Set
SBD         SingleBand Delay (VLBI)
SBGG        IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Geocenter/Gravity
SBH         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Hydrology
SBIG        Santa Barbara Instrument Group, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
SBL         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Loading
SBM         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Mantle
SBNC        Small Bodies Names Committee
SBO         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Oceans
SB RAS      Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
SBT         IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for Tides
Sc.         Science
SC          South Carolina
S/C         Spacecraft
SCAR        Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
SCAR        Shanghai Center for Astro-geodynamics Research
SCCS        Source Code Control System (UNIX)
SCEC        Southern California Earthquake Center, USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA
SCF         Signal Control Facility (GalileoSat)
SCFCS       ICSU Standing Committee on the Freedom in the Conduct of Science
SCG         SuperConducting Gravimeter
SCI         Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics
SCIAMACHY   SCanning Imaging Absorbtion spectrometer for AtMospheric CartograpHY
SCIGN       Southern California Integrated GPS Network
SCM         Software Configuration Management
SCO         Santa Cruz Operation
SCOSTEP     Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics
SCSI        Small Computer System Interface
SD          Single Density
SD          Single-Depth (GPS antenna)
SD          Single Difference (GPS)
SD          South Dakota
SD          Standard Deviation
SDIO        Strategic Defence Initiative Organization, USA
S.Dak.      South Dakota
SDK         Software Development Kit
SDLC        Synchronous Data Link Communication
SDRAM       Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDSC        San Diego Supercomputer Center
SE          Southeast
SEATO       South-East Asia Treaty Organization
SED         Spectral Energy Distribution
SEFD        System Equivalent Flux Density
SEL         Software Engineering Laboratory (GSFC, CSC, UM), USA
SELENE      SELenological and ENgineering Explorer project (Japan)
SELF        Sea Level Fluctuations in the Medterranean
SELV        Safely Extra-Low Voltage
Sen.        Senator
SENH        NASA Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program
Sens.       Sensing
SENTO       CENtral Treaty Organization
Sep         September
SEP         Strong Equivalence Principle
SEPS        European Secretariat for Scientific Publications
(Segretariato Europeo per le Pubblicazioni Scientifiche), Italy Ser. Series SERC Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA SERIES Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying SEST Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope SESWG NASA Solid Earth Science Working Group SETI Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence SEWP Scientific and Engineering Workstation Procurement SF Semi-Final (sport) SFA San Fernando Monument Information SFCSIC Coordinational Scientific Information Center of the Russian Ministry of Defence SFR Star Formation Region SFSC CGSIC U.S. States and Localities Subcommittee SFX SelF-eXtracting (file archive) SG Signal Generator SG Superconducting Gravimeter SGAPO Space Geodesy and Altimetry Projects Office SGF Space Geodesy Facility, UK SGGS NASA/JPL Satellite Geodesy and Geodynamics Systems Group SGI Silicon Graphics Image SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA SGL CRESTech Space Geodynamics Laboratory, Canada SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language SGMS Space Geodetic Measurement Sites SGP Space Geodesy Project (Space Geodesy Program) Sgt. Sergeant SHAGAP SHAnghai observatory GPS Analysis Program SHAO SHanghai Astronomical Observatory, China SHARC SHarc Acquires Receiver Contents (GPS software) SHARC Super Harvard Architecture Computer SHeGs Superfluid Helium Gyroscope SHEVE Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment SHO Simosato Hydrographic Observatory, Japan SHOLAS Simosato Laser Station, Japan SHORD SHanghai observatory ORbit Determination SI International System of Units (Systeme International) SI Structure Index SIAM Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, USA SIC Solid Inner Core SIF Site Information Form (IGS) SIM NASA JPL Space Interferometry Mission SIM Subscriber Identity Module (GSM) SIMBAD Set of Identifications, Measurements Bibliography for Astronomical Data SIMFOV SIMulation Field Of View software SIMM Single In-Line Memory Module SINET Scientic Information NETwork, Japan SINEX Solution INdependent EXchange format
(Software/technique INdependent EXchange format) SINS Strapdown Inertial Navigation System SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA, USA SIP SIO predicted (orbit) SIRGAS South American Geocentric Reference System
(Sistema de Referencia Geocentrico para America del Sur) SIRS Southern International Reference Stars SIRTF NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility SIS Scanning Imaging Spectroradiometer SISA Signal-In-Space Accuracy (GalileoSat) SIT Silicon Intensified Target SIU Smart Internet Usage (software, HP) SK Norwegian Mapping Authority (Statens Kartwerk), Norway SKA Square Kilometer Array (radio telescope project) SLA Shuttle Laser Altimeter SLI NASA Space Launch Initiative SLICER Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol SLR Satellite Laser Ranging SMART Stretched Mesh Attached to Rope Trusses (radio telescope back-up structure) SMB Server Message Block SMB Small and Media Business SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language SMS Short Messaging System SMS Systems Management Server SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Internet) S/N Serial Number SNAP Standard Notation for Astronomical Procedures (FS command language) SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (Internet) SNNS Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SO Southern Oscillation (meteorology) SOAP Single Operator Automation System SOC Scientific Organizing Committee Soc. Society SOD CNES Service d'Orbitographie DORIS SOD Site Occupation Designator SOEST School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, USA SOFA Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy SOFIA NASA Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy SOHO ESA/NASA SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory mission SOI Southern Oscillation Index (meteorology) SOI Survey of Israel SONET Synchronous Optical NETwork, USA SOOS Stacked Oscars on Scout (TRANSIT) SOPAC SIO Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center, San Diego, CA, USA SOR Starfire Optical Range, USA SORBDT Satellite ORBit DeTerminator (AIUB software) SORT Solar Orbit Relativity Test SP Shore Patrol SP Signal Processing Sp. Space SP NASA STI Special Publication SPAD Single Photon Avalanche Diode SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network SPb St.Petersburg, Russia SPBU St.Petersburg State University, Russia SPC ESA Science Program Committee SPC Super Physical Contact (connector) SPD Spectral Power Density SPE Single Photo Electron SPIE International Society for Optical Engineering SPGN Secondary Precise Geodetic Network, Japan SPM Southern Proper Motion program SPNLAS San Fernando Laser Station, Spain SPOT Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre SPP Solar Principal Plane SPP Standard Parallel Port SPRINTmail SPRINT Mail, formerly TELEMAIL SPS Standard Positioning Service SPT Satellite Positioning Technology SPWG ILRS Signal Processing Working Group SQL Structured Query Language SR Special Relativity SRC-PAS Space Research Center of the Astrodynamical Observatory of the PAS SRDC Shanghai Regional Data Center SRG Special Rapporteur Group SRG Special Research Group SRI Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia SRIF Square Root Information Filter SRIFS Square Root Information Filter and Smoother SRP Solar Radiation Pressure SRP System Reference Point SRS Satellite Reference System SRS Southern Reference Stars SRS Stanford Research Systems, Sunnyvale, CA, USA SRT Haystack Small Radio Telescope SRT Space Radio Telescope SRT Special Relativity Theory SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Space-Shuttle-based INSAR mission) SS Single Sided (disk) SSA Singular Spectrum Analysis SSAC ESA SPC Space Science Advisory Committee SSB Single Sideband SSB Solar System Barycenter SSBM Single SideBand Mixer SSC Set of Station Coordinates SSC SIRTF Science Center SSC Stennis Space Center, MS, USA SSDS NASA Space Science Data System SSE South-Southeast SSFPO Space Station Freedom Project Office SSG Special Study Group SSH Sea Surface Height SHS SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey, ROE, UK SSI Server Side Includes SSL MSFC Space Science Laboratory SSMOC SOFIA Science and Mission Operation Center SSN Social Security Number SSP Scientific Subroutines Package SSPC Site specific phase corrections (GPS) SSS SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys, ROE, UK SST Sea Surface Temperature SSTD Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK SSV Set of Station Velocities SSW South-Southwest SSWG ESA SPC Solar System Working Group St. Saint ST Sidereal Time S&T Sky and Telescope (journal) st. street STA Science and technology Agency, Japan STALAS NASA/GSFC Stationary Laser Station (System) S.T.A.R. Simultaneous Track And Record (CCD software) STD Sexually Transmitted Disease STD Standard Deviation STDN Satellite Tracking Data Network STEC Slant Total Electron Contents ST-ECF Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility STEL Solar-Terrestrial Environment laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan STEP Space Test of the Equivalent Principle (LAEFF, Spain) STI NASA Scientific and Technical Information STIS Space Telescope Imaging Specrograph (HST) STJ Superconducting Tunnel Junction (imaging detector) STR Scientific Technical Report str. street STS Space Transportation System, USA STScI Space Telescope Science Institute STSP ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program STWA Short Thin Wire Antenna SU Seismic Unix software Sun Sunday SUNSAT Stellenbosch University Satellite, South Africa SUNY State University of New York Suppl. Supplement Supt. Superintendent SUT Slovak University of Technology SV Space Vehicle SVD Singular Value Decomposition SVG Scalable Vector Graphics SVGA Super Video Graphics Adapter SVID System V Interface Definition (UNIX) SVLBI Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry S/W Software SW Southwest SWEPOS Swedish Permanent GPS Network SWIRE IPAC SIRTF Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey SWT Sience Working Team SXAO Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, China Symp. Symposium SYRIUS IAA System Radio Interferometric Universal for Satellite observations SYRTE SYstemes de Reference Temps Espace, Paris Observatory, France (former DANOF) SZ Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

To the top of the page

Tabl.       Table
TAC         Technical Assistance Center
TAC         Topcon America Corporation
TAC         Totally Accurate Clock
TAC         USNO Twin Astrographic Catalog
TAD         Teaching for Astronomy Development
TAI         International Atomic Time (Temps Atomique International)
TAO         Tropical Atmosphere Ocean
TAPI        Telephony API
TAU         Tel Aviv University
TAUVEX      Tel Aviv University UV Experiment
Tb          Terabit
TB          Terabyte
tba         to be announced
tbd         to be determined
TBN         The Banner Network
TC          IERS Technical Center
TCB         Task Control Block
TCB         Barycentric Coordinate Time
TCC         Technical Coordinate Center
TCG         Geocentric Coordinate Time
TCP         Transmission Control Protocol
TCU         Timing Control Unit
TCUP        TLRS Upgrade Project
TD          Time Delay
TD          Triple Difference (GPS)
TDAF        Tracking and Data Analysis Facility (ESA)
TDB         Barycentric Dynamical Time
TDC         Technology Development Center
TDF         Travel Demand Forecasting
TDI         Time Delay and Integrate (CCD)
TDOP        Time Dilution of Precision (GPS)
TDRS        NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
TDRSS       Time-Domain Reflectrometry
TDRSS       Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
TDT         Terrestrial Dynamical Time
TEC         Total Electron Content (Total Electron Count)
TECU        TEC Unit
TEFRATRACE  Towards a European Framework for correlating Records of AbrupT
enviRonmentAl ChangE TELENET GTE public packet switching network TELNET Remote Login (Internet) TEMPO Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations TEN Trans-European Network Tenn. Tennessee TEO Terrestrial Ephemeris Origin TEQC Translate/Edit/Quality Check (GPS software) TES Transition Edge Sensor (imaging detector) Tex. Texas TEXnet Texas Network T&F Time and Frequency TFO TOPEX/Poseidon Follow-On TG Tide Gauge TGP Tide-Generating Potential THEMIS THermal EMission Imaging System THEnet Texas Higher Education Network Thu Thursday TIC Time Interval Counter TIF Tagged Image (Interchange) File TIFA Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents TIFF Tagged Image (Interchange) File Format TIFR Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India TIGA Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (IGS project) TIGO Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory
(Transportables Integriertes Geodaetisches Observatorium), Germany TIMED Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics spacecraft TIPS Tether Physics and Survivability Experiment TIR Total Internal Reflection (optics) TIRV Tuned Inter-Range Vector TISC CGSIC Timing Information Subcommittee TIU Time Interval Unit TIUS Truck Inventory and Use Study Tix Tk Interface Extension TLI Transport Layer Interface (UNIX) TLM Telemetry TLRS Transportable Laser Ranging System TM NASA STI Technical Memorandum TM Trade Mark TMR EU Training and Mobility of Researchers program TN Tennessee TNO Trans-Neptunian Objects TNT Teramo-Normale Telescope, OACT, Italy TNT TriNitroToluene TNV Telephone Network Voltage TOCAMM TOrino CAgliari Measuring Machine TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language TOGA Tropical Ocean - Global Atmosphere project TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer TOPEX Ocean Topography Experiment ToR Terms of Reference TOS TIGA Observing Stations TOW Technical Operations Workshop (IVS) T/P TOPEX/POSEIDON TP NASA STI Technical Publication TP Transport Protocol TP Twisted Pair TPD Technisch Physische Dienst, the Netherlands TPF NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder tpi tracks per inch TPI Transport Programming Interface TPS Topcon Positioning Systems TR Tabulae Regiomontanae (Bessel's catalog) TR Technical Report TRACE NASA Transition Region and Coronal Explorer TRANSIT Time Ranging and Sequential ... (Navy Navigation Satellite System), USA Trans. Transactions TRAO Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory TRC Tycho Reference Catalog TRF Terrestrial Reference Frame TRS Terrestrial Reference System TSGC Texas Space Grant Consortium, Austin, TX, USA TSPI Telephony Service Provider Interface TSS Timing Synchronize Signal TT NASA STI Technical Translation TT Terrestrial Time TTandC Tracking Telemetry/Control TTC Telemetry, Tracking, and Command TTTF Time-to-first-fix (satellite navigation systems) TU University of Technology TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Scientific and Technical Research Council, Turkey TUD Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands Tue Tuesday TUJJB Turkish Union of Geodesy and Geophysics TUM Technical University of Munich, Germany TV TeleVision TV Test Vector (VSI) TVG Test Vector Generator (VSI) TVR Test Vector Receiver (VSI) TVDS Transportable VLBI Data System TWAA Technical Workshop for APT and APSG TWG Technique Working Group TWS Translation Workflow System TWSTT Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer TWSTFT Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer TX Texas TX Transiver TXT Text TZD Tropospheric Zenith Delay

To the top of the page

U           Ultraviolet
U.          University
U.          Uranus
U.A.E.      United Arab Emirates
UAE         Unrecoverable Application Error
UAL         United AirLines
UAO         Urumqi Astronomical Observatory, China
UAProf      User Agent Profile (WAP)
UARS        Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite
UB          University of Bonn, Germany
UBR         Unspecified Bit Rate
UBV         Ultraviolet-Blue-Visible (star photometry)
UBVRI       Ultraviolet-Blue-Visible-Red-Infrared (star photometry)
UCAC        USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog
UCAC-S      USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog - South
UCAR        University Consortium of Atmospheric Research, USA
UCCSN       University and Community College System of Nevada, NV, USA
UCL         University College London, UK
UCLA        University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
UCSB        University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA
UCSC        Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Chile
UCSC        University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA
UCSD        University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
UDA         Universal Data Access
UDDI        Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (Internet specification)
UdeC        Universidad de Concepcion, Chile
UDF         Universal Disk Format
UDMA        Ultra Direct Memory Access
UDP         User Datagram Protocol (Internet)
UDSC        Usuda Deep Space Center, Japan
UEN         Up-East-North coordinate system
UERE        User Equivalent Range Error (GPS)
UFO         Unidentified Flying Object
UFPR        University Federal de Parana, Brazil
UH          University of Hawaii, USA
UHC         Ultra-High-Contrast
UHF         Ultra High Frequency
UID         Universal IDentifier
UIN         Universal Internet Number
UIUC        University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain, IL, USA
UK          United Kingdom
UKATC       UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, UK
UKIDSS      UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey
UKIRT       United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope, Mauna Kea, HI, USA
UKMO        UK Meteorological Office
UKS         UK Schmidt Telescope, AAO, Australia
UKST        UK Schmidt Telescope, AAO, Australia
ULG         Ultraluminous Galaxy
ULF         Ultra Low Frequency
UM          University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
UMBC        University of Maryland Baltimore County, MD, USA
UML         Universal Modelling Language
UMTS        Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UN          United Nations
UN          University of Nottingham, UK
UNAM        Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
UNAVCO      University NAVSTAR Consortium, Boulder, CO, USA
UNB         University of New Brunswick, NB, Canada
UNC         Universal Naming Convention
UNEF        United Nations Environment Program
UNEP        United Nations Environmental Program
UNESCO      United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNFCCC      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNI         User-to-Network Interface
UNICANT     University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
UNLV        University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
UNO         United Nations Organization
UNR         University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
UNSW        University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
UoN         University of Nottingham, UK
UOSATS      University of Surrey Satellite, UK
UPAD        University of Padova (Universita di Padova and Telespazio S.P.A.), Italy
UPI         United Press International
UPC         Polytechnical University of Catalonia (Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya),
Barcelona, Spain UPC Ultra Physical Contact (connector) UPF Universite de la Polynesie Francaise, French Polynesia UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply UPS Universal Parsel Service URI Uniform Resource Identifiers URL Uniform Resource Locator URN Uniform Resource Name URSI International Union of Radio Science (Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale) U.S. United States of America USA United States of America USACOE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAF U.S. Air Force USB Universal Serial Bus USB Upper SideBand USC University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA USC&GS U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey USCG U.S. Coast Guard USD U.S. Dollar USGS U.S. Geological Survey USIM Subscriber Identity Module for UMTS network USL UNIX System Laboratories (former Bell Labs) USN U.S. Navy USNA U.S. Naval Academy USNO U.S. Naval Observatory USPS U.S. Postal Service USRA Universities Space Research Association, USA USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UST University of Science and Technology, Ghana UT Universal Time UT Utah UT1R Universal Time Regularized UT AUSTIN University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA UTC Coordinated Universal Time UTCSR University of Texas Center for Space Research UTM Universal Transverse Mercator projection UTOPIA University of Texas Orbit Processor (software) UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair UTPM Universal Time and Polar Motion UTX University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA UTXMO Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA UUCP Unix to Unix Copy (Program) UV Ultraviolet UW University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada UWBC Ultra Wide Band Correlator (VLBI) UWS University of Western Sydney, Australia

To the top of the page

V.          Venus
v.          Verb
v.          Version
V           Visible
v.          Volume
VA          Department of Veterans Affairs, USA
VA          Virginia
VAFB        Vandenberg Air Force Base, Vandenberg, CA, USA
VAT         Value Added (sales) Tax
VAX         Virtual Address eXtension
VB          Visual Basic
VBA         Visual Basic for Application
vBNS        very high speed Backbone Network Services
VBR         Variable Bit Rate
VC          Video Converter
VCL         Vegetation Canopy Lidar
VCL         Visual Component Library (Borland)
VCM         Visual Component Manager
VCR         Video Cassette Recorder
VCS         VLBA Calibration Session
VDOP        Vertical Dilution of Precision (GPS)
VEN         Vertical-East-North coordinate system
VEP         Vehicle Evaluation Payload satellite, Japan
VER         VERsion
VERA        VLBI Exploration for Radio Astrometry project, Japan
VESA        Video Electronic Standards Association
VEX         VLBI Experiment Format
VF          Video Frequency
VGA         Video Graphics Array adapter
VHF         Very High Frequency
VHRR        Very High Resolution Radiometer
VHS         Vertical Helix Scan (video technology)
VHSIC       Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VI          Virgin Islands
VIIRS       Visible-Infrared Imager Radiometer (NPOESS)
VILSPA      Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station, Spain
VIP         Very Important Person
VISAR       Video Image Stabilization and Registration system
VISC        VSOP International Science Council
VISTA       Visible & Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, UK
viz.        (Lat. videlicet) namely
VLA         NRAO Very Large Array, Soccoro, NM, USA
VLAN        Virtual LAN
VLB         Video Local Bus
VLBA        Very Long Baseline Array
VLBAg       Gedetic VLBA DAS
VLBI        Very Long Baseline Interferometry
VLTI        Very Large  Telescope Interferometer
VLF         Very Low Frequency
VM          Virtual Machine
VMS         Virtual Memory (Machine) System
VMS         Visual Monitoring System
VNIIFTRI    All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Technical
and Radio-Technical Measurements VO Virtual Observatory VOL Variations of Latitude Vol. Volume VP Vice President VPN Virtual Private Network VRAD VLBI Radio Source (SELENE) VRS Virtual Reference Station (GPS) vs. versus VS NIIFTRI East-Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Technical
and Radiotechnical Measurements (= ES SRIPRM) VSA MRAO Very Small Array VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method VSAT Very Small Antenna Terminal (Very Small Aperture Terminal) VSC VISTA Science Committee VSI VLBI Standard Interface VSI-H VLBI Standard Interface - Hardware specification VSI-S VLBI Standard Interface - Software specification VSL NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium, the Netherlands VSOG VSOP Science Operations Group VSOP VLBI Space Observatory Program VSS Microsoft Visual SourceSafe VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio VT Vermont VT Virtual Terminal VTEC Vertical Total Electron Contents VTS Vessel Trafic System VUT Vienna University of Technology, Austria v.v. vice versa VW VolksWagen VxD Virtual Driver VZT Visual Zenith Telescope

To the top of the page

W           West
W           Wins (sport)
W3C         WWW Consortium
WA          Washington
WAAS        Wide Area Augmentation System (GPS)
WABI        Windows Application Binary Interface
WACO        Washington Correlator (USNO)
WAILI       Wavelets with Integer Lifting (software)
WAN         Wide Area Network
WAP         Wireless Application Protocol
Wash.       Washington
WBR         With best regards
WC          Water Closet
WCCD        Washington Comprehensive Catalog Database
WCDA        Western Canada Deformation Array
WCDMP       World Climate Data and Monitoring Program
WCPT        West Coast Precision Traverse
WCRP        World Climate Research Program
WDM         Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WDS         Washington Double Star catalog
Wed         Wednesday
WEGENER     Working Group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks
for Earth science Research WEP Weak Equivalence Principle WESTPAC Western Pacific Laser Tracking Network Satellite WET West-European Time (UTC + 1h) WETDST West-European Daylight Time (UTC + 2h) WETLAS Wettzell Laser Station, Germany WFAU Wide-Field Astronomy Unit, ROE, UK WFC Wave-Front Clock (VLBI) WFF NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA, USA WFPDB Wide-Field Plate DataBase WFPC Width Field and Planetary Camera (HST) WG Working Group WGAS IAU Working Group on Astronomy Standards WGC World Golf Championship WGDAA IAU Working Group for Encouraging the International Development
of Antarctic Astronomy WGESP IAU Working Group on Extra-Solar Planets WGGGI SCAR Working Group on Geodesy and Geographic Information WGGMVS IVS Working group for Geophysical Models in VLBI Software WGNEO IAU Working Group on Near Earth Objects WGPSN IAU Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature WGRF IAU Working Group on Reference Frames WGS World Geodetic System WGWWDA IAU Working Group for the World wide development of astronomy WHAT A CAT West Hellenic Arc Tectonics and Calbrian Arc Tectonics WHO World Health Organization WI Wisconsin WING Western Pacific Integrated Network of GPS, Japan WIRE NASA Wide Field Infrared Explorer Wis. Wisconsin WKSH Windowing Korn Shell (UNIX) WLAN Wireless Local Area Network WLRS Wettzell Laser Ranging System, Germany WLS Weighted Least Squares WM Wild Magnavox WMA Windows Media Audio (file format) WMC World Meteorological Center WMF Windows MetaFile WMO World Meteorological Organization WNW West-Northwest w/o without WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment WOL Wake-On-LAN (Intel networked remote control) WOSA Windows Open Services Architecture WP Word Processing WP Word Processor WP Working Party WPG WordPerfect Graphic File WPLW Wavelet Packet Laboratory for Windows (software) WPLS Western Pacific Laser Satellite WPLTN Western Pacific Laser Tracking Network WPVN Western Pacific VLBI Network WRC World Radio Conference WRMS Weighted RMS wrt with respect to WS WorkStation WSAAG Western Sydney Amateur Astronomy Group WSDL Web Services Description Language WSO World Space Observatory WSW West-Northwest WT Wavelet Transform wt. weight WTA Womens' Tennis Association WTO World Trade Organization WTU Wuhan Technical University, China WUT Warsaw University of Technology, Poland WV West Virginia W.Va. West Virginia WVR Water Vapor Radiometer WWAS World Warning Agency for Satellites WWF World Wildlife Fund WWW World Weather Watch WWW World Wide Web WY Wyoming Wyo. Wyoming WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get

To the top of the page

X           Cross
X.25        Communication Protocol for Packet
XAPI        eXtensive Application Programming Interface
XBM         X-Window Bitmap
XEUS        X-ray Early Universe Spectroscopy Mission (ESA)
XL          Extra Large
XML         eXtensible Markup Language
XMM         X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission
XNS         Xerox Network Systems (UNIX protocol)

To the top of the page

Y2K         Year 2000
YACC        Yet Another Compiler-Compiler (UNIX)
yr          year
YSI         Yellow Springs Instruments, USA

To the top of the page

ZAW         Microsoft Zero Administration for Windows
ZHD         Zenith Hydrostatic Delay
ZHR         Zenithal Hourly Rate (meteors observations)
ZIMLAS      Zimmerwald Laser Station, Switzerland
ZIP         Zone Improvement Program (U.S. mail system code)
ZIPE        Zentralinstitut fuer Physik der Erde, Germany
ZMOA        Zhu, Mathews, Ocean, Anelasticity (nutation madel)
ZND         Zenith Neutral Delay
ZPD         Zenith Path Delay
ZT          Zonal Time
ZWD         Zenith Wet Delay